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Full text of "The design reality"

Design Quarterly 94/95 

Published by Walker Art Center 
Vineland Place 
Minneapolis Minnesota 

Editor Mildred S Friedman 
Graphic Design James E Johnson 
Circulation Linda Krenzin 
Graphic Design Assistance 
Wayne Hennkson 

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The Second Federal Design Assembly was 
sponsored by the Federal Council on the 
Arts and the Humanities administered by 
the National Endowment for the Arts 

Contributing Agencies Department of the 
Army, Department of the Interior Depart 
ment of State. General Services Adminis 
tration National Endowment for the Arts 
National Endowment for the Humanities. 
The Smithsonian Institution 



This double issue of Design Quarterly is 
published with the a; sistance of the Federal 
Council on the Artj and Humanities and 
the National Endowment for the Arts, a 
Federal agency 



Cover photo courtesy: Intermedia 
Systems Corporation 

Photographs of the Assembly and its 
participants were taken by John Veltn and 
James E Johnson 



Second Federal Design Assembly 

The Design Reality 



Design Quarterly 94/95 



3 Introduction 



9 Architecture 



27 Visual Communications 



45 Interior Design/Industrial Design 

59 Landscape Architecture/Environmental Planning 

74 Closing Remarks 



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Editor s Notes 



Thirty hours of audio-tape of the two- 
day Second Federal Design Assenn- 
bly have been edited for publication in 
Design Quarterly. Of necessity, some 
excellent material has been deleted, 
and a number of presentations that 
were primarily visual have not been 
included here. 

The Assembly was attended by eight- 
hundred Federal administrators and 
designers from various government 
agencies. Speakers were drawn from 
government and the private sector. As 
one element of a four-part 1972 ini- 
tiative to improve Federal graphics, to 
review procedures for the employ- 
ment of artists, designers and 
architects in Federal agencies and, 
to review and expand the guiding prin- 
ciples for Federal architecture, the 
Assembly brought people together to 
exchange information and to open 
new directions in the various fields of 
design 

Two topics were covered each day: 
first, architectureand visual communi- 
cations, then interior/industrial design 
and landscape architecture/environ- 
mental planning. Participants were en- 
couraged to move freely between two 
presentation spaces, Arena Stage and 
Kreeger Theater. One did not feel 
talked at, but talked with, for at every 
session there were opportunities for 
substantive exchanges between 
speakers and audience. 



In this same vein, Bill Marlins plea for 
an open, continuous conversation be- 
tween Federal administrators, archi- 
tects and critics clearly reflects a 
prevailing desire among those of us 
not in government employ to get at 
what is going on . This attitude does not 
indicate an effort to flatten the tradi- 
tional enemy- Federal bureaucracy— 
but to understand and assist Federal 
employees and consultants in pro- 
ducing the kinds of results that serve 
agreed upon purposes. Because Fed- 
eral Government is unwieldy, it is 
sometimes difficult for the average 
citizen to pin down who "they" are 
(agency personnel) and it is equally 
difficult for the government adminis- 
trator to analyze who we" are (the 
people). Activities in the spirit of the 
Design Assembly are part of a move- 
ment to eliminate these ambiguities. 

Our purpose in publishing the Assem- 
bly proceedings is to inform a broad 
audience of Federal activity in design 
and architecture. We hope by this 
means to elicit your thoughts and ac- 
tions on the issues addressed at the 
Assembly, so that in these areas of 
general concern the character and 
quality of Federal activity will be re- 
sponsive to public awareness and 
participation. 

MSF 




copyright ' Walker Art Center 1 975 



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Introduction 



4 Participants 



5 Foreword 

Nancy Hanks 

7 Introduction 

The Honorable 
John Richardson, Jr. 






8 Keynote Address 

The Honorable 
Rogers C.B. Morton 


















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"^ Nancy Hanks has served as Chairman of 
the National Endowment for the Arts and 
the National Council on the Arts since 
1969. 



THE WHITE HOUSE 
WASHINGTON 



August 23, 1974 



Dear Nancy: 

Your report on the progress of the Federal Design 
Program is most gratifying. There is little wonder 
it received such a favorable reception at the recent 
nneeting of the Cabinet and agency heads. I am 
pleased that, as a result of the briefings, many 
agencies are proceeding with their plans to imple- 
ment design improvement efforts. 




■s!VJohn Richardson, Jr. is Assistant Secre 
tary of State for Educational and Cultural 
Affairs He is also a member of the Inter- 
American Foundation and an ex officio 
Trustee of the John F Kennedy Center for 
the Performing Arts 




■5^ Rogers C.B. Morton was appointed Secre- 
tary of the Interior in 1 971 after serving as 
Chairman of the Republican National 
Committee and as Congressman from 
Maryland s Eastern Shore for seven years 



The American people are right to expect excellence 
from their public officials and Government. As pub- 
lic servants, I believe it is our duty to see to it that 
this desired excellence characterizes all facets of 
endeavor. This is why I am encouraged by your ef- 
forts to improve the quality of Federal design. 

I want you to know that you have my full support in 
this task. I firmly believe that, in order to inspire 
the people's pride in their Government, we must pro- 
vide them with manifest evidence of its vitality, cre- 
ativity and efficiency by setting the highest standards 
in architectural design, environmental plaxuiing and 
visual communication. 

May this Second Federeil Design Assembly provide 

a most useful stimulus to achieving a "Design Reality" 

that will prove worthy of the trust we hold. 

Sincerely, 

The Honorable Nancy Hanks 

Chairman 

National Endownnent for the Arts 

Washington, D. C. 20506 

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Foreword 

Nancy Hanks 



Two years ago, the word design was 
alien to the vocabulary of most Federal 
administrators It was not as we say, a 
"household" word within the Federal 
establishment. Today, however, the 
impact of that six-letter word is being 
felt throughout the Federal Govern- 
ment as a result of the First and 
Second Federal Design Assemblies 
and the Federal Design Improvement 
Program 

This issue of Design Quarterly reports 
on the activities and presentation of 
the Second Federal Design Assembly 
attended by more than eight-hundred 
administrators and designers last 
September. As you read through these 
pages, you will understand why the 
Assembly's outstanding speakers and 
visual presentations generated a new 
understanding of and enthusiasm for 
design excellence in the Federal 
Government. 

I would like to take this opportunity to 
put the Second Federal Design As- 
sembly into the context of the Federal 
Design Improvement Program and to 
highlight the Program s progress to 
date 

The origins of the Federal Design Im- 
provement Program date back to 
May 1971 when the White House 
asked the heads of Federal agencies 
how they could assist the arts and 
how artists could contribute to Federal 
programs. Most of the 63 agencies 
responding expressed concern with 
the design quality of Federal build- 
ings, office interiors, graphics and 
publications Their responses reflect- 
ed a recognition that while the Federal 
Government was the largest client of 
design services in the nation, it had 
overlooked its responsibility to insure 
that Its buildings and publications 
projected a sense of pride to citizens, 
as well as communicating information 
and services clearly and succinctly to 
the public Importantly, the Federal 
agencies recognized their respon- 
sibility to take the leadership necessary 
to place the United States Government 
in the forefront of design excellence 

In response to agencies concerns, 
the Federal Design Improvement 
Program was initiated in 1972 under 
the direction and coordination of the 
National Endowment for the Arts- 
with the following maior elements; 
1) a Federal Design Assembly, spon- 
sored by the Federal Council on the 
Arts and the Humanities 2) a review 
and expansion of the 1962 Guiding 
Principles for Federal Architecture 
3) a Federal Graphics Improvement 



Program; 4] a Civil Service Commis- 
sion review of Federal procedures for 
recruiting, hiring and training design 
professionals As of this writing, I am 
pleased to report significant progress 
in each area 

Federal Design Assemblies 

We have held two successful Design 
Assemblies, the first in April 1 973 and 
the second this past September, which 
IS the subject for this Design Quarterly 
issue 

The Assemblies are an important ele- 
ment of design awareness programs 
for Federal administrators They were 
conceived as a means of increasing 
Government administrators under- 
standing of design and its use as a 
management tool Both the First and 
Second Federal Design Assemblies 
have stressed the functional aspects 
of design and have showcased out- 
standing examples of Federal and 
private design programs The 
response from Federal administrators 
attending them indicates that they are 
recognizing why design is necessary 
to achieving greater economy, effi- 
ciency and enhanced communica- 
tion for their agencies 

Shortly after the First Federal Design 
Assembly, a number of Federal ad- 
ministrators asked to be kept apprised 
of the Governments design accom- 
plishments Responding to this in- 
terest, the National Endowment for 
the Arts began publishing FEDERAL 
DESIGN MATTERS, the first Federal 
publication devoted to design achieve- 
ments both within and outside the 
Government This publication has 
become an effective means of com- 
municating Federal agencies design 
achievements, as well as stimulating 
new interest among agency adminis- 
trators in design matters.' 

The response of state and city govern- 
ments to the Federal Design Assem- 
blies has been enthusiastic The ap- 
plicability of design assemblies tor 
state and municipal officials already 
has been demonstrated by two states 
-Colorado and Ohio and two cities 
-Tulsa, Oklahoma and Rochester, 
New York -which have sponsored 
assembli.es for their government ad- 
ministrators A number of other states 
have expressed interest in sponsor- 
ing assemblies next year as a means 
of initiating a design improvement 
program tailored to their specific 
needs. 



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Federal Architecture Study 

The review and expansion of the 1 962 
Guiding Principles for Federal Archi- 
tecture IS well underway. An ad hoc 
task force of fifteen distinguished 
nnembers has completed an interim 
report entitled Federal Architecture: 
A Framework for Debate. This report 
IS intended to encourage wide public 
debate on topics of highest priority 
for the improvement of Federal archi- 
tecture. In coming months, supple- 
ments to the report will include a 
series of special papers on design 
competitions, multiple uses for Fed- 
eral office buildings, adaptive use of 
historic structures for Federal space 
needs and a visual history of Federal 
architecture.^ 

Federal Graphics Improvement 

More than one-third of all major Fed- 
eral agencies have had their graphic 
materials evaluated by expert design 
and communication consultants who 
have recommended measures to im- 
prove publications, posters, stationery, 
signs and forms. As a result, twelve 
agencies already have initiated com- 
prehensive programs that will soon 
reflect "the new Federal graphics" 
and more effective communication 
systems. An important element of this 
program is the design awareness 
program generated among Federal 
administrators when they sit down 
and discuss their agencies' graphic 
portfolios with knowledgeable design 
consultants. 

Civil Service Employment 
Procedures 

The Civil Service Commission's review 
of employment procedures for design 
professionals has been completed by 
an ad hoc task force appointed by 
Civil Service Commission Chairman 
Robert E. Hampton. The task force's 
report entitled Excellence Attracts 
Excellence, contains major recom- 
mendations in the areas of recruit- 
ment, classification, qualifications, 
professional development and 
administrative awareness. The 
National Endowment for the Arts is 
now working with the Commission's 
staff on their implementation ^ 



The Commission's new procedures 
for recruiting designers and having 
their portfolios reviewed by panels of 
outstanding design consultants will 
ensure a sound foundation on which 
agencies can build their design 
programs. 

The underlying premise of the Federal 
Design Improvement Program is that 
the Federal Government can bring 
the best design leadership into the 
service of citizens to replace the out- 
worn mediocrity too often evident in 
government offices and graphics. We 
are excited and encouraged by the 
strong support the Federal Design 
Improvement Program is receiving 
from Federal administrators and the 
public alike. In his message to the 
Federal administrators attending the 
Second Federal Design Assembly, 
President Ford said, 'The American 
people are right to expect excellence 
from their public officials and Govern- 
ment. As public servants, I believe it 
IS our duty to see to it that this desired 
excellence characterizes all facets of 
endeavor." By the nation's Bicenten- 
nial celebration, we are confident that 
we will see many of our government's 
buildings and publications reflecting 
the design awareness and commit- 
ment to design excellence generated 
by the Federal Design Improvement 
Program. 

1] FEDERAL DESIGN MATTERS is avail- 
able free of charge to Federal administra- 
tors and designers Federal employees 
wishing to be added to the mailing list 
should contact the National Endowment 
for the Arts, Washington, D.C 20506 

FEDERAL DESIGN MATTERS is available 
on a subscription basis to non-Federal 
persons at the annual rate of $3 00 or the 
single rate of 75C an issue from the Super- 
intendent of Documents, Government 
Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. 

2} Copies of Federal Architecture: A 
Framework for Debate are available from 
the Architecture -i- Environmental Arts Pro- 
gram, National Endowment for the Arts, 
Washington, DC. 20506 

3} Copies of Excellence Attracts Excel- 
lence are available from the Office of 
Examination Plans, Program Develop- 
ment Division, Civil Service Commission, 
Washington, DC, 20415. 



The bedrock of a sustained Federal 
Design Improvement Program de- 
pends on attracting and keeping 
qualified design professionals in the 
Government. 



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Introduction 

The Honorable John Richardson. Jr 



The Second Federal Design Assembly 
continued the dialogue between Fed- 
eral administrators and design profes- 
sionals which began with the First 
Federal Design Assembly held in April 
1973. The First Assembly's theme, 
The Design Necessity, emphasized 
the relationship of design to per- 
formance. The proposition that design 
is an urgent requirement, not a 
cosmetic addition, was presented 
convincingly by nationally known and 
respected design professionals who 
discussed case studies showing how 
design had been used to save money 
and time, to enhance communication 
and to simplify maintenance and use. 

Building on The Design Necessity," 
the Second Assembly's theme, "The 
Design Reality, " explored what Fed- 
eral agencies are actually doing to 
improve the quality of Federal design 
and the problems they confront in 
achieving design excellence in archi- 
tecture, interior design/industrial 
design, landscape architecture/en- 
vironmental planning and visual 
communications. 

The Assembly's two-day program 
aimed at sensitizing Federal adminis- 
trators to the relevancy and impor- 
tance of design to their management 



responsibilities And from the en- 
thusiastic responses of those attend- 
ing the Assembly, as well as the reac- 
tions of the outstanding design 
professionals serving on the Assem- 
blys four program committees, I 
believe the Assembly made a signifi- 
cant contribution to raising the level 
of design awareness among Federal 
administrators 

As the following pages of Design 
Quarterly will attest, the Assembly 
was more than just another Washing- 
ton conference The two noted inter- 
national speakers, Sir Paul Reilly of 
London and Pieter Brattinga of 
Amsterdam, the array of nationally- 
known design professionals who 
participated in the Assemblys pro- 
gram, the variety of multi-media 
presentations, the puppet shows, the 
graphics and signage and the 
ambience of the two theaters in which 
the Assembly was held contributed to 
a vital and substantive program re- 
flecting a design reality" of which I 
think the Federal Government can be 
extremely proud 

In the coming months, I look forward 
to seeing the impact of the Second 
Federal Design Assembly measured 
in Federal agency action to improve 
design performance 




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Keynote Address 

The Honorable Rogers C B Morton 



In my work and in my life I spend a 
great deal of time out-of-doors I spend 
time in the great mountains of the West 
and on the plains and prairies, the 
wetlands, and on the bays and estu- 
aries, the rivers, and also, of course, 
I spend a lot of time, as we all do, in 
environments that have been totally 
created by the works of man I think 
as far as beauty is concerned, as far 
as functional attributes are concerned, 
nature is keeping up with us very well 

I think quality of life means a lot more 
than just clean air, more than clean 
water. Quality of life is a reaction with- 
in mans heart to his environment, to 
what IS around him, to the things that 
he sees and the things that he touches 
and the things that serve him, the 
things that protect him, things that 
work for him, and all the rest Quality 
of life has got to embrace, I think, a 
blend between what we do here on 
earth, with our air-hammers, with our 
cranes, with our skill, and what na- 
ture does around us There has to be 
a better mating than we have accom- 
plished in the past I think we can say 
this in regard to any culture, whether 
It be here in our new land of America, 
or whether it be in the more ancient 
civilizations. 

I work for a department that has in it 
a national service that is engaged ac- 
tively, and effectively I think, in the 
business of matching man s work to 
the work of nature, namely, the Na- 
tional Park Service Design is a very 
important thing for the Park Service 
in creating an environment that is not 
repugnant. The environment that man 
creates in our National Parks is usually 
overshadowed by the grandeur of the 
natural environment around it, and if 
you put a sore thumb in the middle 
of a National Park, believe me, you 
get some mail. For example, the high- 
way interchange in Yellowstone- you 
people in the Park Service- where 
are you"^ I have gotten a lot of letters 
about It. 

The Federal Government is spending 
a billion dollars a year or more on 
architecture The other day a Con- 
gressman told me we are building 
some 55 or 56 office buildings across 
the nation, financing them on time, 
dollar-down and a dollar-a-week, but 
thats a different problem I wonder 
whether we have had the courage in 
the development of those buildings 
and in the use of our influence on 
those buildings to depart from the 
patterns that are conventional to de- 
part to the point where we are taking 
advantage of the new technology: to 



take advantage of the new creativity 
that each generation is endowed with; 
to take advantage of the fact that the 
balance between the cost of materials 
and energy is different from what it 
was a generation ago, or even a couple 
of years ago. 

Do these buildings and do these things 
that we are building with the public 
wherewithal incorporate the courage 
of design^ I think design has to have 
courage, because I believe so strongly 
that convention is so powerful a force 
that, to break out of that, architects, 
designers, engineers, users, and all 
the rest, must have courage 

Take energy as an example. We have 
some fantastic renewable resources; 
at least we have one that I know of, 
and that is the sun. I don t think we are 
really taking advantage of the sun even 
with today's technology It can run 
lights and heat buildings, but there are 
manyotherthingsitcando It replaces 
those finite resources which are really 
expensive now beyond anything that 
we thought they would be at this point 
in history 

So, lets just make sure that we have 
the necessary courage. Let's make 
sure that we also feel design is an ac- 
ceptable proposition in our work and 
in our whole life experience A lot of 
men I know feel that if you are inter- 
ested in design you are probably not 
interested in the functional aspects of 
things, machines and the like. Well, 
there is nothing that could be farther 
from the truth. A good machine that 
works well is a beautiful proposition, 
a beautiful blending together of mo- 
tion and of material I just hope that 
the Federal Government doesn't sit 
back and let design concepts go out 
in front of it 

I am excited about this Assembly be- 
cause I see here the minds, the talents, 
and the courage to make design ex- 
citing and challenging and to provide 
the feeling among young people that 
this is my world, my city, or my town, 
and I am excited to look at what my 
father has done 



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Architecture 






10 Participants 

12 Images of Federal 
Architecture 

Brendan Gill 

14 Symbol as Architecture 

William Seale 

1 6 An Inside Perspective on the 
1962 Guiding Principles 
for Federal Architecture 

'■ij-M. Arthur Goldberg 

-??. ^ij-j. 19 Panel Discussion: 



s-^ Federal Architecture: 

^ ^^^ri ^ Framework for Debate 

g \ ^^ Bill N. Lacy, Moderator, Lois 

r> ^ Craig, George Dudley, Walter 

3" '-[2 jv^^*^ Meisen.Jaquelin Robertson, 






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21 The Critic's Eye 

N William Marlin 



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^"^ 23 New York s Housing Quality 
\ Program 

\ Alexander Cooper 






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K-. 25 Responding to Needs: 
'f \ A Discussion of Participatory 

^ Ji", Workshops 



Lawrence Halprin 



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Architecture 




1^ Alexander Cooper, architect-planner, is 
Connmissioner of the New York City 
Planning Commission and Director of the 
Graduate Program for Urban Design, 
Columbia University Graduate School of 
Architecture and Planning. 




■^ Lois A. Craig, Staff Director of the Federal 
Architecture Proiect, has directed the re- 
search and editing for the ad hoc task force 
interim report entitled Federal Architec- 
ture: A Framework for Debate 




it George Dudley, architect, educator and 
public administrator, is Chairman of the 
New York State Council on Architecture 



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tV Brendan Gill, Broadway theater critic for 
The New Yorker, is presently serving as 
Chairman of the Board of the Municipal 
Art Society of New York, President of the 
Institute for Art and Urban Resources and 
Chairman of the Board of the New York 
Landmarks Conservancy, Inc 



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■s^ Arthur J. Goldberg has served as Asso- 
ciate Justice of the Supreme Court, 
Ambassador to the United Nations and 
Secretary of Labor Mr Goldberg is cur- 
rently practicing law in Washington and is 
a University Professor of Law and Diplo- 
macy at the American University, 
Washington, D C 






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it Lawrence Halprin, landscape architect- 
planner, IS a principal of Lawrence Halprin 
& Associates. San Francisco and New 
York. Mr Halprin s award winning pro|- 
ects include Ghirardelli Square, San Fran- 
cisco. Sea Ranch. California. Nicollet Mall, 
Minneapolis, and Forecourt Fountain, 
Portland, Oregon 



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■i^ Bill N. Lacy, Director of the Architecture + 
Environmental Arts Program, National En- 
dowment for the Arts, is currently serving 
as Executive Director of the Federal study 
to revise and update the 1962 Guiding 
Principles for Federal Architecture 



■ix Jaquelin T. Robertson is Vice President. 
Arlen Realty & Development Corp and 
President, Arlen/Plannmg & Design 
Group, New York From 1966-1973 he 
held several of New York City s major plan- 
ning and urban design positions 



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'^ William Marlin is an Associate Editor of 
Architectural Record, the Architecture/ 
Urban Design Critic for the Christian 
Science Monitor anti former Editor in Chief 
of the Architectural Forum. 




■5!^ William Seale, historian, author and film- 
maker, currently is developing a documen- 
tary film on the history of the White House 
for the White House Historical 
Association 



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ix Walter A. Meisen, AIA is Assistant Com 

'^jJ-jL . missioner lor Construction Management. 

^'^^li- Public Building Service of the General 

^^'^'^tV Services Administration , and is responsible 

'^^^l^yf^^AJ-vA, '°'' '^® GSA s nationwide design and con- 

^'^i^i^V^bb^^^ struction program 



■i!4r Harry M. Weese hi: ;'een President of 
Harry M Weese & Associates o( Chicago, 
architects and urban planners, since 1947 
Mr Weeses Washington clients include 
Arena Stage Theater 






11 



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Images of Federal Architecture 

Brendan Gill 



Oh, how lucky we are, those of us 
who are not architects- pimps, den- 
tists, manufacturers of false eyelashes. 
Federal administrators, writers -what- 
ever our occupations may be. Every- 
day we should get down on our knees 
and thank God we are not architects. 
People like us, people of the most 
delicate sensibilities, could not afford 
the spiritual anguish of practicing ar- 
chitecture. 

I ought not to keep it from you that my 
own escape from the practice of ar- 
chitecture was a narrow one. Once 
long ago when I was a little boy, I was 
determined to become just such a 
person. I was two or three and had 
comparatively little knowledge of the 
bitter world of grownups I sketched 
on the nursery wallpaper with my 
chunky yellow and green crayons the 
floorpians of imaginary castles. I 
formed new shelters underoverturned 
chairs and sofas covered with sheets, 
blankets and rugs, and I may say that 
thequality of life in those shelters com- 
pared very favorably with the light that 
Gordon Bunshaffs marble windows 
provide in the Beinecke Library at 
Yale 1 cannot tell you the impatience 
with which, at ten or twelve, I awaited 
the arrival of my first client 

Luckily for me, a discriminating 
angel, somewhere in the depths of my 
unconscious, took care to give me 
warning of my peril Be a student of 
architecture, this angel warned me, 
but not a practitioner of it. Stroll round 
It, wave to It, flirt with it, even dart in 
and out of its bed from time to time, 
but never, never, never marry it. it 
will make you an admirable mistress, 
the angel said, but it would make you 
a bitch of a wife. 

So, I took the angel s advice And here 
I am with among my design credits 
only an unfinished one car garage and 
a dock, cantilevered out over a lake in 
Connecticut, that occasionally, slowly, 
slowly, settles down into the lake. 

One of the reasons that my guardian 
angel warned me away from the prac- 
tice of arcnitecture was, so she said, 
that the profession bore a singular 
cross, an intolerable cross, a truly 
backbreaking cross That cross was 
clients Not merely clients, but clients 
with a difference Clients who assume 
that they know as much or more than 
the gifted and arduously trained man 
whom they have lust hired Clients with 
ideas, and with wives who have 
ideas, and with children, and par- 
ents, and uncles and aunts, and 
cousins who have ideas, who make 



suggestions, who draw back as if 
stung to the quick if it is hinted 
that their suggestions may be silly 
ones. 

Because we all live in houses or apart- 
ments and work in offices or studios, 
we are all authorities on architecture 
and we cannot resist manifesting our 
expertise. I take it that one of the func- 
tions of these annual assemblies is to 
make you in the Federal Government 
capable of giving better advice Noth- 
ing on earth will keep you from putting 
in your two cents worth in any event. 

The Design Task Force tells us that 
the Federal Government is the largest 
architectural planner on earth. On 
the list of kinds of buildings that it com- 
missions, I found every type of shelter 
except an ossuary, which 1 think is a 
form of crypt, though it may be a bird. 

The Federal Government and the ar- 
chitects with whom It works ought to 
be in a relationship of friendly intimacy, 
but I get the impression that the rela- 
tionship IS sometimes, alas, an ad- 
versary one. Good intentions on both 
sides eerily collide instead of mingle. 
Two wrongs don t make a right, but 
two rights may well make a smashup 
In respect to many short-range prob- 
lems, solutions can be found. In re- 
spect to some long-range problems, 
there may be no solutions at all. 

A wise friend of mine once said, it is 
the mark of a great country that it can 
bear to live with two or three insoluble 
problems at a time, bear not to make 
the mistake of trying to solve them pre- 
maturely Something like this attitude 
of disciplined speculation will have to 
be adopted on two or three of the big- 
gest bow-wow problems that we face 
today in order to leave open to our 
successors a sufficient number of 
workable alternatives. One such bow- 
wow problem is the perennially vexa- 
tious matter of a suitable Federal style. 
Surely by now it ought to be obvious 
thatthe question never need be asked, 
since It IS unanswerable, and gets in 
the way of questions that can be an- 
swered The pursuit of an official style 
worthy of the grandeur of our country 
IS an activity as fatuous as the attempt 
to write the Great American Novel It 
IS as sure to end in folly as the pursuit 
of happiness is sure to end in misery. 
Happiness is something that you take 
the measure of after you have experi- 
enced It And a suitable official style 
for a city or a state or a country is the 
style that one recognizes as such after 
It IS no longer possible to go on build- 
ing It All preoccupation with style 



12 



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puts the real work ot design at a crip- 
pling disadvantage. It obscures the 
goals that are attainable and is itself 
a nnirage. Like any nnirage it is seduc- 
tive. It lures us into supposing that we 
are gaining ground when in fact we 
are either standing still or slipping 
backward. 

Take a famous formulation by the dis- 
tinguished turn-of-the-century archi- 
tect, Thomas Hastings, who once 
said, Style isthe problem solved." How 
wonderful. What a useful epigram. 
One lets it melt on the tongue like 
some delicious sherbet But let the 
brain set to work on it and it is done 
for. Forthere is nothing there. Nothing. 

To begin with, what is the problem? 
Is Hastings saying that one has only 
to set down clearly the terms of the 
problem and one cannot fail in meet- 
ing those terms to solve the problem, 
and thus to produce a certain style of 
building? That would be roughly to 
say that form follows function, though 
by now we recognize that even that 
pithy statement has less in it than 
meets the eye. But I doubt if Hastings 
meant the word problem in that sense. 
Take the most celebrated building de- 
signed by him and his partner, Car- 
rere, the New York Public Library. It is 
in many ways a glorious building of 
its neo-Renaissance kind, one of the 
three or four finest ever built in this 
country But as a solution to a prob- 
lem. It IS enough to make you either 
laugh or cry. It is after all a public 
library with many millions of volumes 
used by many millions of people a 
year The first room to which these 
people seek access is the catalogue 
room, and where is that to be found'^ 
Why, atthe verytopof the building, up 
several grueling flights of stairs. True, 
the library contains an elevator or so, 
but in the true beaux arts tradition, 
they have been concealed in the fabric 
of the building, in out of the way, hide- 
and-seek places, inoffensive to the 
neo-Renaissance eye 

As for the reading rooms, second in 
importance only to the catalogue 
room, they, too, are at the top of the 
building They happen to be among 
the handsomest volumes of space - 
gorgeous, solemn, dusty, delightful 
space -in the world But, oh, they are 
like Mount Everest to reach I may yet 
have a massive cerebral hemorrhage 
as both happily and miserably I toil 
up all those hard granite flights of 
stairs to the top 



Hasting's problem was to put a work- 
ing library into an Imperial Roman 
Temple and I suppose that one could 
say, by his standards he solved it, as 
McKim solved the problem of making 
a mighty railroad station function ef- 
fectively inside the Baths of Caracalla 
But those innocent days of archeolog- 
ical accommodation are past recovery 
and not on the grounds of economics 
alone. 

I fear that I cannot resist calling atten- 
tion at this point to a Hastings-like sort 
ofstatement by my friend, James Mar- 
ston Fitch, the only architectural his- 
torian I know who wears rubbers when 
he lectures Jim s epigram serves to 
introduce the booklet of the Design 
Task Force which you have all read 
and mastered. You will recognize his 
saying at once "Architecture is an 
instrument whose central function is 
to intervene in man's favor." 

Again one thinks, how wonderful. An- 
other exquisite dollop of lime sherbet 
But then one thinks, but yes, the very 
same words would apply to medicine, 
to law, to manufacturing steam boilers, 
to sweeping up broken glass after an 
automobile accident. Our gifted and 
blessed Jim has told us simply noth- 
ing I call attention to the hazards of 
fine talk about style, because they are 
or can be fruitful in other lines of work, 
including my own. But they will not 
prove fruitful here. 

A drinking Irish friend of mine, the 
late Brendan Behan, used to tell the 
story of how he met his wife, Beatrice 
He was a boy in his teens, standing 
shyly- hard to imagine Brendan shy, 
but he was once upon a time-at the 
end of a bar in a Dublin pub, while a 
middle-aged man, well in his cups, 
was entertaining a group of Trinity 
scholars at the opposite end of the 
.bar. Brendan heard the stranger say, 
"Man stands sentinel to the nullity of 
the void." Brendan thought: Jesus 
Christ, that's the finest thing I ever 
heard in my life ' 

After the Trinity scholars had wan- 
dered off, Brendan approached the 
man and said. Excuse me, sir, but 
there was something you said a few 
moments ago 

What was that, lad'? 

You said, Man stands sentinel to the 
nullity of the void Now what would 
that be after meaning, sir'?' 



Did I say that? Well, damned if I know 
what it means. Come along home with 
me, I have a daughter you II be glad 
to meet " 

Let that story serve as a parable and 
warning as we get to work And let 
meendmyremarks with, justforgood 
luck, a quotation from my beloved 
Yeats Yeats said Rhetoric is the will 
trying to do the work of the imagina- 
tion." Now there is rhetoric in writing 
and by extension in all of the arts, in- 
cluding architecture. Let us all be 
warily on guard against rhetoric in our 
sessions today and tomorrow 

That is often harder to do than one 
might think For example, it is easy to 
say that what is beautiful about this 
building that we are in is that it is with- 
out rhetoric But at the very moment 
that I praise it, I am reminded of the 
difficulty in saying anything with re- 
spect to architecture that is not imme- 
diately subject to contradiction. 

I am staying at the Channel Inn Motel, 
and It IS all rhetoric, rhetoric of the 
most extravagant and comical sort, 
and I am simply dotty over it. I wander 
about in it in a daze of delight. Sitting in 
the bar last night, known of course as 
the Engine Room, for all the names at 
the Motel are relentlessly nautical. I 
listened as a three-man combo played 
I Cant Give You Anything But Love, 
Baby," and I looked out past them 
through the great windows overhang- 
ing the water, and the boats slipped 
past in the late twilight, and a heli- 
copter buzzed up and down like a 
giant dragonfly, and on the far shore. 
the lights of cars winked on and off 
among the trees Pure rhetoric, and 
all the more precious for being so. 

I had better limit my strictures in re- 
gard to rhetoric to the working part 
of our days Let us be as literate as 
possible as we wrestle with modest 
truths, attainable goals it is a measure 
of the degree to which I have myself 
sought to remain modest in my dis- 
course this morning that I have sedu- 
lously avoided making a single refer- 
ence to Images of Federal Archi- 
tecture. 



13 



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Symbol as Architecture 

William Seale 



The history of state capitols is the 
history of a group of symbols that 
were born in colonial times, triumphed 
during the first decade of the young 
nation, and survive, altered but un- 
diminished today They are the archi- 
tectural symbols of American democ- 
racy. Their beginnings were political; 
architecture devised by legislatures. 
They have survived in spite of profes- 
sional architects v^/ho never really 
understood them and who battled 
against them quite as vehemently in 
1828 as in 1961 in Honolulu, where 
the most recent state capitol was 
completed. 

These American symbols are now in 
legislative structures all over the world, 
the accepted legislative architecture of 
democratic governments. As symbols 
they are abstract, that is, they are not 
necessarily specific and uniform in 
theirappearance. Indeed, theyare very 
flexible. As a syndrome they can be 
rearranged, reshaped, and everybody 
IS satisfied, as long as they are there. 
In their most familiar form, four sym- 
bols can be pointed out as the obvious 
features of U.S. capitols the dome, 
the balanced wings-suggesting a 
bicameral government- portico and 
rotunda. 

Capitol history in terms of monumental 
buildings begins at Williamsburg, 
Virginia, where the first monumental 
capitol was built in 1704. It was built 
sideways to the city, it had a place for 
a statue in the middle, which it did 
eventually have, and the two balanced 
sides, all reflecting the Roman temple. 
At the top. the sun, moon and stars 
were carved in the arms of Queen 
Anne. It burned down in 1 747 and the 
legislature was ordered to reconstruct 
It, but they didn t do that They turned 
It around to face the town and ordered 
the addition, in 1751, of a portico- 
the first portico in America 

In 1785, the Maryland legislature 
ordered an addition to the State House 
in Annapolis, the first dome built in 
America. It is the only source of the 
original symbol still standing 

After independence, there were a 
numberofideasof how the democratic 
government should be housed. What 
does a state house look like? Thomas 
Jefferson had the idea of using a 
temple Kidder Smith, who is doing a 
visual history of American architec- 
ture, starts the chapter on Virginia 
with the words, Thomas Jefferson 
introduced classical architecture to 
America America never recovered 



It IS often said that Jefferson went and 
viewed the Maison Carr6e in Mimes, 
France, and fell in love with it and said 
to the people back home, you must 
build one This was the first instance 
ofan ancient temple applied to modern 
usage But there is a portico, balanced 
houses, and in the center a saloon or 
rotunda beneath the dome, an idea 
Jefferson got in Maryland. 

The United States Capitol by Charles 
Bulfinch, was completed in the late 
1 820s. It appears to be the model for 
our state capitols, yet the symbols 
were well established by the time there 
was a competition for its design. A 
series of architectural characteristics 
are united in its design which 
developed separately in different 
colonies and in different states in the 
18th century: its dome covered with 
painted canvas, its two wings, its great 
portico, and all. It was never copied 
once in the history of American 
capitols 

At the time of the Civil War the U.S. 
Capitol, with Its two enormous wings, 
needed to be united by some central 
theme. The original white-washed 
structure was so protected by Presi- 
dent Fillmore, that Thomas U, Walter 
of Philadelphia, who got the job 
through politics, designed a light 
weight dome in iron to go on the top 
of the Capitol, without endangering 
the existing building 

The Civil War came on and construc- 
tion was stopped. Two thousand 
soldiers were billeted in the Capitol 
and the basement was a bakery for 
the army Lincoln moved the soldiers 
out with one very brief executive order 
and said that the dome s construction 
must continue. Someone asked him 
about the extravagance of it, and he 
said, . . if the dome continues and 
the people see that the dome goes on, 
they will believe that the Union will 
go on ■ 

The innumerable domed capitols built 
after the Civil War are beacons on 
the landscape You can see them as 
you approach capital cities on a tram 
or in an automobile. After 1864, al- 
most all the domes were gilded with 
local gold, if possible With the panic 
of 1893, but really before that, gilded 
age design began to change and there 
was a return to a new sort of beaux 
arts classicism 

All through the gilded age and until 
the 90s. Federal building was in the 
hands of the Federal architect It was 



14 



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not open for competition. By the 
1890s Federal architecture was a 30 
million dollar a year proposition. So 
Cass Gilbert, McKim, Mead and White 
and all of the big names met in Wash- 
ington and had an Act passed, with 
great difficulty, opening Federal build- 
ings to competitions at the discretion 
of the Secretary of the Treasury. This 
legislation was extremely controver- 
sial; and, in a sense, there was-cu- 
riously enough-a decline in the 
quality of Federal buildings. 

Exceptions were McKim, Mead and 
White's 1891 Providence, Rhode 
Island building, and Cass Gilbert's 
marvelous castle at St, Paul, Minne- 
sota, which set the tone for the Ameri- 
can renaissance in state capitols. 

Most of the beaux arts capitols were 
very lavish inside. The rotunda at Little 
Rock looked more like an opera house 
than a capitol. It was painted by a 
Chicago painter who didn't speak 
very good English, and the local men 
would come down from the Montana 
Club with their guns and ask him to 
add things to the mural, like covered 
wagons. He was actually terrified, be- 
cause he was painting angels and 
cherubs at the time. 

The rotunda in South Dakota is paint- 
ed, and just as phoney as it can be. 
Above where you can reach, anything 
goes, including a mixture of plaster, 
that came out mottled, looking like 
marble 

After World War I, capitols had to 
compete with skyscrapers in some 
places, as they were the things that 
announced cities as you approached 
them. So we have a number of sky- 
scraper capitols. The skyscraper era 
was followed by a nativist movement 
for building little colonial capitols in 
cities like Dover, Delaware, and in 
Santa Fe, New Mexico, where the sky- 
scraper just didn t work. 

There have been 131 capitols and 
state houses built in the United States 
and Colonial America. Since 1830, 
there has not been a single exception 
to the rule -symbols are present in 
one form or another Every nation has 
Its symbols in architecture. Those of 
the democracy seem far more 
obscure than others, and of course, 
are newer Yet in 200 years of build- 
ing its state capitols, this nation has 
developed a persistent series of ab- 
stract symbols in architecture. 






Capitol symbols united in their most typical 
form in the Colorado State Capitol by E E 
Myers, 1886-1895 (above) The same 
architect designed this grand rotunda (left) 
in Texas's Capitol in Austin, 1888 Here 
the vernacular has triumphed and a 
gilded age carpenter-architect has creat- 
ed a gigantic space of painted iron rising 
from a granite base 

William Nichols designed this early Capitol 
at Tuscaloosa. Alabama, 1828 1833 
(below, left) Replaced by a more imposing 
building m the late 19th century, it demon- 
strated the application of capitol symbols 
in a structure which was essentially a 
domed box with a rotunda; wmgs were 
implied by its proiecting portico 



15 



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An Inside Perspective on the 1962 
Guiding Principles for Federal 
Architecture 

Arthur Goldberg 



The 1962 Guiding Principles for Fed- 
eral Architecture were proposed by 
an ad hoc committee on Federal of- 
fice space appointed by President 
Kennedy That committee arose in 
the following fashion I was Secretary 
of Labor, which was, at that time, the 
smallest department in the Federal 
Government I discovered upon a tour 
of inspection shortly after taking office 
that my small department was housed 
in 22 different buildings. This was not 
only inefficient, but more importantly, 
the buildings were crummy buildings. 
And more important even than that, I 
discovered that one was a totally 
segregated building 

In those days Cabinet Officers exer- 
cised the right of free speech and I 
raised the issue at a Cabinet meeting. 
I said to the President and Members of 
the Cabinet-this situation simply can- 
not be The Federal Government 
should be decently housed, and the 
type of housing that I have experi- 
enced for my department, if illustrative, 
is a disgrace to the Federal Govern- 
ment and simply not a suitable en- 
vironment for employees of the Labor 
Department 

As often happens when you raise a 
question, I found myself chairman of a 
committee on office space. 

Well, there are advantages and dis- 
advantages to being chairman One 



of the advantages in this instance was 
I immediately assigned the subjects 
that I was not terribly interested in to 
other members of the committee. 
Cabinet Officers and White House 
staff. Should the Government's build- 
ings be decentralized'? What are the 
statistics about the over-crowding of 
Government buildings, and so on^ 

For myself, I picked the juicy topic- 
Federal architecture. Our committee, 
of course, likeall committees, met sev- 
eral times and largely devoted itself to 
the immediate task at hand, what were 
we going to do to house Government 
employees adequately? 

I struck a blow for a definition of ade- 
quacy, reaching back into my experi- 
ence in the industrial scene Psychol- 
ogists have constantly pointed out 
what you all know; the conditions 
under which a person works have a 
direct relationship to his productivity, 
his state of happiness, and his satis- 
faction with the job. The old factories 
that we see in New England, textile 
mills, were dismal to the extreme You 
don't have to go back to Dickens to 
findthatout It has been demonstrated 
that live, colorful factories improve 
the morale of workers And, of course, 
the same is true of offices. 

I therefore felt that it was pertinent to 
talk in this report about Federal archi- 
tecture and design, and I believed 
nghtly that I could rely upon President 



The National Endowment for the Arts 
program. Works of Art in Public Places, 
IS responsible, with the two cities involved, 
for the works shown here Alexander 
Calder s La Grande Vitesse is located on 
the City-County Plaza at Vandenberg 
Center, an urban renewal area m central 
Grand Rapids, Michigan An Endowment 
grant was matched with private contribu- 
tions from citizens of Grand Rapids Com- 
missioned in 1967, the work was installed 
in June of 1969 Made of painted corten 
steel, the sculpture is 40 feet high, 52 feet 
long and 25 feet wide (lettj. 

Peter Voulkoss untitled bronze work, lo- 
cated in Highland Park. Illinois on public 
land between City Hall and the Highland 
Park Public Library, is 10 feet high and 
60 feet long Commissioned in 1970 and 
installed in August of 1973 this sculpture 
was also acquired through an Endowment 
matching grant 




16 



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Kennedy's tolerance for nne to ven- 
ture into the areas of arctiitecture, de- 
sign, and the redevelopment of Penn- 
sylvania Avenue 

Now, when we looked at Federal ar- 
chitecture, in 1962, the only descrip- 
tion that could be made of Federal 
architecture at that time is that it was 
simply God-awful. The blend of neo- 
classic buildings of the 30s and ware- 
house-like buildings of the 50s and 
60s, was a mish-mash, which, unless 
arrested, would permanently scar the 
beauty of Washington, a beauty which 
IS a testimonial to L Enfant and to the 
grand design for our nations capital. 

Now, it was our hope in 1 962 in fash- 
ioning the guidelines, that the archi- 
tectural design of future Federal build- 
ings would become a model to others, 
reflecting the finest American archi- 
tectural thought, and I quote from the 
report befitting the dignity, enter- 

prise, vigor and stability of the Amer- 
ican public," We advocated a fruitful 
collaboration between architecture, 
fine arts and government, the avoid- 
ance of an official style, the flow of 
design, not from the government to 
the architectural profession, but from 
the architectural profession to the 
government 

We are now well into the 70s and the 
pertinent question, leaving history 
aside, is, have we achieved the 1962 



objectives which I have outlined? Now, 
I believe that some progress has been 
made. We are talking about Federal 
buildings in the sense of those built 
by the Federal Government and sup- 
ported by the Federal Government 
For example, the District of Columbia 
Library is an imaginative architectural 
creation. But, if you look at Govern- 
ment buildings by and large, the hon- 
est answer is that although some 
progress has been made, Federal 
buildings and Federally supported 
buildings do not meet the objectives 
of what we outlined in 1 962 

fvlost new Federal buildings are hardly 
a model. There is one slight comfort, 
and It is that they are better than the 
private office buildings in Washington, 
which is of very slight comfort indeed, 
considering the sad state of architec- 
ture in the private sector. But govern- 
ment, as Justice Brandeis once said 
in another context, is the omnipotent 
and omnipresent teacher for good or 
evil. The government sets an example. 
In architecture, the government exam- 
ple IS not very distinguished. 

It IS a puzzlement as to why, in a coun- 
try endowed with distinguished archi- 
tects and designers we continue to 
be unable-there are some excep- 
tions -to have good architectural de- 
sign in Federal, let alone private, office 
buildings in our nation's capital This 
was the question in 1962. It remains 
the question now. 



An important recommendation of the 
1962 Guidelines was to incorporate 
in the architectural design of Federal 
buildings and Federally supported 
buildings, fine arts, with emphasis on 
the work of living American artists. 
This concept is well underway with 
the National Endowment's Works of 
Art in Public Places program 

One of the things that should be done 
in this connection is to open all of our 
Federal buildings, not only the White 
House, to the public at large if they 
housed great works of art, that would 
be an inducement to the public, which 
crowds our museums, to go through 
the public parts of our public buildings. 

The 1962 Guidelines, improved and 
brought up to date, will be imple- 
mented. But I make a fervent plea. 
The Supreme Court of the United 
States made a mistake in Brown ver- 
sus Board of Education; not in its 
basic decision in the case, because 
that was a great decision of the War- 
ren Court, but in adopting the con- 
cept that the decision ought to be 
implemented with all deliberate speed. 
That concept is not a sound one The 
revised 1962 Architecture Guidelines 
should be implemented here and now. 




17 



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Renovation of the Old Post Office in 
Washington, DC . proposed in a recent 
planning study initiated by the National 
Endowment for the Arts, will preserve the 
last remaining late 19th century Richard- 
sonian Capital landmark Located be- 
tween the White House and the Capitol, 
Its preservation is key to the revitihzation of 
Pennsylvania Avenue The Old Post Office 
will become a mixed-use building housing 
Federal and District agencies, shops, 
restaurants and cultural events 

Architect W J Edbrooks 1892 drawing 
of the Old Post Office (above), a proposed 
skylighted courtyard (left, above), and floor 
plans showing typical existing circulation 
(1) and proposed circulation (2), 




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Panel Discussion: 
Federal Architecture: 
A Framework for Debate 

Bill N Lacy, Moderator, Lois Craig, 
George Dudley, Walter Meisen, 
Jaquelin Robertson, Harry Weese 



The Framework for Debate Is an 
interim report on a study project on 
Federal architecture for the National 
Endowment for the Arts The study 
participants' goal was to review and 
expand the 1962 Guiding Principles 
for Federal Architecture In the panel 
discussion, a number of questions 
are raised about the study's conclu- 
sions and suggestions are made that 
will eventually lead to a new set of 
guiding principles for Federal archi- 
tecture and recommendations for 
their Implementation A summary of 
the Interim Recommendations from 
the Framework precedes the panel 
discussion. 

People and Quality 
Government administrators, profes- 
sional societies, and educators should 
address the special training needs and 
incentives for attracting and keeping 
talented design professionals in pub- 
lic service. Consideration should be 
given to placing design professionals 
at policy levels in design and construc- 
tion agencies. 

In selection of architects and engineers 
for major public building contracts, 
the ranking, selection process and 
rationale for the final selection should 
be documented and made a matter of 
public record. 

Selection of both consultants and 
panelists should be based solely on 
professional qualifications with no 
undue attention to seniority or political 
influence. In this way newer and 
smaller as well as minority firms would 
be encouraged to apply for public 
work. 

Design competitions, properly fi- 
nanced, should be used to encourage 
public design concern and demon- 
strate government receptivity to new 
ideas and people 

Purposes and Quality: 
Federal buildings used by the general 
public in urban locations should en- 
hance as well as protect the environ- 
ment by encouraging street vitality 
and a lively pedestrian setting in and 
around these buildings 

Art works and the design and costs 
of interiors, furnishings, and land- 
scaping should be included in initial 
building plans and budgets. These 
Items should be non deductible 

Client agencies and Congress should 
give more attention to the purposes 



of government building so the design 
profession can respond to well-defined 
building goals The designer of ulti- 
mate responsibility should participate 
as early as possible in the develop- 
ment of the project 

Design A wareness 

Procurement supply schedules for 
interiors should be thoroughly studied 
and revised New schedules should 
be reviewed regularly by panels of 
leading private and public designers 

Post-occupancy evaluation of build- 
ingsshould includean analysis of how 
the building meets community and 
users needs 

An overall design advisory office 
should monitor all Federal building 
activities with periodic reports measur- 
ing government progress and recom- 
mending changes in Federal policies 
to raise the level of design achieve- 
ment. 



Weese: This study is an ongoing 
thing, a framework, and that is what 
is exciting about it. A living, going 
thing , It stands for constant review and 
improvement 

The most impressive thing to me is 
how huge the Federal Government is 
and what a lot of work the GSA hands 
out every year When you think of 
1 250 Empire State Buildings, that 2 5 
billion feet of floor space, and 400,000 
buildings in world-wide possessions, 
and each year a billion more in new 
buildings alone, it is enough to make 
you think this is a very important effort. 

Lacy: I suppose of the recommenda- 
tions of major points made in this 1 974 
version of the architecture guidelines 
the use of old buildings is one of the 
newer ideas: using older buildings for 
new purposes was something that the 
1962 Guiding Principles did not 
consider 

Weese: There are three things here 
that I understand are going to be the 
major part of your continuing thrust 
One IS adaptive use and the second 
IS multiple use, third is this whole 
business of selection There is an 
eloquent paragraph which says A 
good architect sometimes does 
mediocre buildings but a mediocre 
architect hardly ever does a good 
building. 



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I see competitions in here as a means 
of selection and as a way of getting 
many small initiatives, and fewer and 
fewer large ones Because, once you 
put all of your eggs m one basket, 
chances of having innovations are 
limited 

Meisen: I am tempted to be critical 
of things like Federal competitions, 
award programs, and honor pro- 
grams, because I feel if government 
buildings are as bad as they are, and 
in many cases they are, what is the 
sense of having them compete with 
each other to see which is the best of 
the bad'? 

Shouldn t we really be competing in 
national competitions'? Why establish 
another in-house group'? I would 
rather compete with the National AIA 
Honor Awards and if we can t compete 
and win, then we are really not doing 
our job. So while I think you have to 
have in-house competitions to stimu- 
late people, until we start winning 
national competitions, then we have 
lost the point 

Dudley: The report does not go 
broadly enough into the potential of 
Federal architecture, and indeed the 
responsibility it has to act in a leader- 
ship role whenever it goes into a com- 
munity A building of any type, at the 
Federal level, can be leverage for a 
much broader look at the environ- 
ment around it what can be done 
about It, what can be multiplied, max- 
imized, from Its investment with other 
levels of government, or private effort 
For example, adaptive re-use, can be 
a joint Federai/pnvate type of thing. 
Whole districts can be recycled, so to 
speak, with Federal, state and local 
leverage. 

I think ratherthan creating an Advisory 
Council on Architecture, the group 
of agency designees who worked on 
the Framework for Debate should be- 
come permanent, on-going mechan- 
isms for inter-communication be- 
tween the agencies for the joint study 
of common problems I hope that this 
becomes a framework for action and 
policy and no longer debate 

The awards suggestion should be 
thought through What is implied in 
the reference to awards here is that 
they would be a method for educat- 
ing the public, educating adminis- 
trators, broadening their understand- 
ing of what IS good architecture m the 
broadest sense 



Lacy: We are not anxious to create 
another awards program just for the 
fun of creating it. The idea was to 
create a much broader kind of awards 
program that would include not only 
architecture but landscape, industrial 
design and graphics, and it was 
another effort to single out what the 
Federal Government does that is 
good Perhaps it could be just a part 
of the Federal Design Assembly with- 
out creating a separate thing. Your 
suggestion, I take it, would be to put 
more emphasis, more effort, on to 
good public awareness programs 
than on awards'? 

Craig: I think awards is an unfortunate 
word When you are dealing with pub- 
lic awareness it seems to me helpful 
if you have actual buildings or land- 
scape or interiors that you are talking 
about- in effect, you would be select- 
ing those as examples of good ways 
to do things or ways to exemplify some 
of the ideas in the report, and you can 
leave the word awards out, if you 
like. 

Robertson: I have serious concerns 
about awards, particularly those given 
by the AIA. I think they are counter- 
productive to the production and the 
public recognition of healthy archi- 
tecture 

One, they stress photographability 
and immediate design goodiness. 
You can t give an award to a building 
that has just been completed There is 
nothing to award, because buildings 
arent just pieces of sculpture AIA 
ought not give design awards until a 
building has been judged by its user 
over a five or ten year period 

The report talks about a Federal style 
I think there is a tendency within the 
modern movement to denigrate sym- 
bolic buildings and particularly 
symbolic buildings that draw symbols 
from the past. An architect, like a 
writer, cannot invent a new language 
overnight: he can t invent the wheel 
each time he invents a new building 
It IS absolutely essential to get over 
the obsession of newness and change 
He must employ symbols from the 
past and he must not change rules as 
he goes 

Mixed-use, that is trying to find out 
what uses will make a healthy street 
over the next 1 5 years, and designing 
buildings to reinforce those uses, is 
almost 100 percentagainst the original 
ideas of 1 962 which said. Let s make 
this a beaux arts street and healthy 



uses will follow." For reasons that I 
think all of us are familiar with, we 
don't believe that any more And yet 
the shell of the idea- lets make this 
a beautiful street- is still there, and we 
are now trying to solve other kinds of 
problems with that idea. 

Weese: If we are really going to get a 
handle on the environment, it seems 
to me that we ought to expand the 
power of the process which is largely 
in Federal control. Is revenue sharing 
a good phrase these days'? 

Dudley: You can do something about 
the process, you can improve it But 
you can t do anything about the prod- 
uct. Once It IS in place you are stuck, 
so It IS the process to which people 
should address themselves 

Craig: One of the things the Task 
Force was attempting to do was to 
make the report, insofar as you can 
do It with words, part of the process. 

Robertson: One of Justice Goldberg s 
most important points is that govern- 
ment must set example. It is one of the 
powers it has. The rather murky point 
I was trying to make is that the process 
a real estate entrepreneur must follow 
to remain solvent, given the mood of 
the economy that now exists, is quite 
different from what we consider to be 
an orderly design process, and never 
the twain shall meet. 

Meisen: I disagree with that If a client 
process doesn t permit us to do what 
we think our traditional design mode 
would like to be, then I don t expect 
a client to have to change his process 
We should change ours. We should 
find the way to give him good design. 

Robertson: Some things will never 
be organized, and they have to do 
with the two value systems, both of 
which may be right and which never 
can come in phase, as it were It is 
precisely the examination of where 
those value systems are not in phase, 
not the exhortations that they must 
be made to be in phase, but a recog- 
nition that they may never be, where 
I would want to focus the attention. 
It IS precisely at the examination of 
where those head-to-head, perhaps 
irreversible value judgment conflicts 
come that most of the problem lies 



20 



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The Critic's Eye 

William Marlin 



On the stairway of an obscure house 
in Buenos Aires, the poet Jorge Luis 
Borges found, on the third or fourth 
rise, barely discernible, a small hole, 
just an inch in diameter Crouching 
down on the stairs, he positioned his 
head for a closer look and moving his 
eye right up to the aperture, his senses 
were absorbed in what he described 
as a brawling and animated scene, a 
view of everything, absolutely every- 
thing in the universe. 

He called it the aleph. ( . that world 
where pain and pleasure take on trans- 
finite values and all our arithmetic is 
dismayed.' C. S. Lewis). One wonders 
how many times people had gone up 
or down those stairs, perhaps giving 
this aleph a passing look, perhaps 
thinking it a knot in the wood, or per- 
haps nothing at all. And yet there it 
was- a connection between the few 
who cared to crouch and look, and 
everything else imaginable. 

Architecture is very much like the 
aleph and the architecture critic, traip- 
sing up and down stair after stair, is 
very much like Borges, looking for 
points of connection, encounter, rec- 
ognition, orientation, in the everyday 
environment. 

For me, as I traipse and look, there 
must be an aleph somewhere, but 
while perhaps expecting too much, I 
often get the feeling that the essence 
of architecture is missing in a building, 
no matter how elegantly functional the 
material elements of that architecture 
may be and no matter how impres- 
sively symbolic. 

There must be an aleph, a point of 
connection, if our architecture is to 
serve human needs in the fullest 
sense. I am well aware that the every- 
day slogging which goes on in govern- 
ment work may seem far removed 
from the sense of things, but I suspect 
that there are alephs, figuratively 
speaking, to be found on your stairs 
as well, if only during that everyday 
slogging you keep watching for them 
For if the Argentine poet was right, 
these small holes m the woodwork 
should not be looked on as a bother 
They were probably always there, of- 
fering a sense of worth and wonder to 
your work, iust as your work should 
be offering a sense of worth and won- 
der to the everyday lives of Americans 

An architecture critic, by the very na- 
ture of the subject, cannot withdraw 
into a conceptual or operational vac- 
uum any more than you in govern- 
ment can For architecture, though it 



may be a visually obscure thing, at 
times, like the aleph. and at times for- 
tunately so, its very presence and pur- 
pose subtly shape people's percep- 
tion of and use of not only their physical 
surroundings, but their social, cul- 
tural and economic environment as 
well. In this way, criticism, especially 
in a society of interwoven forces and 
trends, must be a careful composite 
and assessment of such forces and 
trends as they are expressed by archi- 
tecture, suggested by it, or indeed, 
denied by it 

The building at hand is, for the critic, 
a set of issues at hand, and a cleverly 
tossed off denunciation of aesthetic 
bungling is to me clearly down the list 
of matters to be discussed, when it 
comes to determining why a building 
or a city plan, or a landscape design 
has fallen short. 

The critics preoccupation must be 
the structure of things This does not 
mean a preoccupation with adroitly 
engineered details Because however 
adroit, such details have become the 
stuff of buildings, big beyond belief, 
that are bludgeoning the diversity and 
the vitality of our cities and neighbor- 
hoods Neither does this preoccupa- 
tion mean being entranced with spatial 
stunts, because however well modu- 
lated or furnished, entrancing spaces 
are being created, pack-ice pure, 
which will leave people out in the cold, 
especially when they are inside. 

The sense of architecture as structure 
must be discussed as the structure of 
human interaction, the sense of inter- 
action between people, between activ- 
ities, between times of day. between a 
building and its streetscape. between 
the architectural scale and style of the 
present day dovetailed with those of 
yesterday That is the kind of inter- 
action one sees through the aleph. 
and the critics responsibility is to 
awaken and inform as many people 
as possible, your constituency as 
government people and mine as a 
writer 

Architecture exists to nurture human 
expression, human expectation, at 
the same time that it exists to serve 
practical human need This is inher- 
ently the material and the spiritual 
function and the social purpose of 
architecture of a public nature, that 
which we are meeting to discuss 
today But how is a critic to explore or 
to explain this sense of structure'' 
First, the critic must want to. and 
frankly, not many do This kind of dis 
cussion and exploration will not take 



21 



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place if the critic tails to delve into the 
structure of decision making, policy, 
procedure, and guidelines by whichi 
ttiings get built- Merely flailing away at 
ttie results is not enough 

I am interested in architecture of a 
public nature, your mission in govern- 
ment, because such architecture has 
for good and bad, consistently set the 
benchmark for private efforts across 
the land. The financial and adminis- 
trative reach of Federal activity is, need 
It be said, pervasive, touching prac- 
tically every curbside and sidewalk in 
the country. So what you do, and the 
way you do it, your attitudes as well 
as your techniques, is of vital concern 
to anyone hoping to improve the cli- 
mate of expectation and opinion in 
which public architecture is done and 
to which It must respond 

I ask you to let me in, then, on the 
structure of an agency s procedures, 
to let me in on the ways in which it 
undertakes planning, programming 
and design and construction activity. 
I ask you to let me in on the ways in 
which it selects and works with archi- 
tects, engineers and allied disciplines, 
and to let me in on the details of how 
policy IS actually implemented as re- 
lated to how policy has been stated. 
Let me in on these and I will be in on 
the kind of structures which must be 
perceived by the critic and measured 
by him, assessed by him, as a basis 
for discussing public architecture. 

I am not here to suggest that criticism 
stops when such confidentiality and 
access are established. Neither am I 
here as someone who will go back 
and write glowing articles about all of 
the magnificent intentions in Washing- 
ton. I am here to suggest that closer 
communication between the working 
critic or urban writer and government 
is of fundamental logistical importance 
if better design is to be bought, not 
only within Federal agencies but also 
bought, so to speak, by an increas- 
ingly alert public. If there are failings 
in the functional, aesthetic and social 
aspects of public architecture, these 
are also failings in the structure and 
spirit of the decision making process 

The working press, the architecture 
critics, share a responsibility with you 
in government-the consistent as- 
sessment of your evolving policies 
and programs in such a way that peo- 
ple may understand and be able to 
envision the potentiality of such pro- 
grams as they will affect cities, com- 
munities, goods and lives This might 
be called designing a climate, for all 



I know, a climate of comprehension 
in which yourefforts to improve design 
and the structure of that effort can be 
clearly discussed, understood and 
read about by the average American. 
By giving our time to each other, by 
sitting down to discuss the spirit and 
substance of policy and procedural 
change, we can improve each other's 
performance by educating each other 
and by helping each other get the 
hopes for and the hangups about de- 
sign in government out in the open. 

So I would urge consideration of a 
program by which curious, critical 
journalism in the arts, in architecture 
and urban design, in city planning 
and in the related social, behavioral 
and political sciences be taken more 
seriouslyas a tactical concern by those 
charged with administering the design 
improvement program and by those 
heads and deputies of agencies 
charged with design and construction 
responsibility. Needless to say, our 
perspective on issues will continue to 
differ at times, but that difference 
should be confided face to face, ex- 
plained and talked over- not just ap- 
pear in print. What does appear in 
print about Federal programs and 
public design should be based on a 
willingness on the part of the press to 
putasideourmuch-heated harangues 
about the inevitability of abysmal de- 
sign in government and take a closer 
look, with your cooperation in the 
agencies, at what is being done to 
uplift the situation, hangups and all. 

The architecture critic is your ally even 
as the architecture critic may be your 
adversary. Every time you find your- 
self wincing at the eloquent or abra- 
sive regrets of Ada Louise Huxtable 
or Wolf Von Eckardt, pound the table 
if you will, grab the phone, scream ex- 
pletives, but don't regret the fact of 
their having regretted something you 
may have done. Making readers wince 
IS a way of awakening them, just as is 
a critic's sharing of excitement when 
in his or her opinion, something of 
worth has been achieved 



22 



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New York's Housing Quality Program 

Alexander Cooper 



When you ask yourself who designs 
and builds housing, the answer is not 
so nnuch who, but what, and I am pro- 
posing that zoning designs and builds 
it. That is a design reality 

The Housing Quality Program is a 
redefinition of the 1961 zoning ordi- 
nance, a comprehensive overhaul 
based upon unlocking and making 
more flexible New York's existing resi- 
dential zoning regulations. It is a work- 
ing document listing 27 elements of 
housing quality in four categories: 
neighborhood impact, security and 
safety, recreation space, and apart- 
ment and building interiors. Proposed 
by the Urban Design Council of New 
York City in 1 973, it is currently being 
refined and publicly discussed in prep- 
aration for acceptance by the city 

The Housing Quality Program does 
not just define elements of quality. It 
proposes means of implementing 
them, going right to the basic legal 
control of neighborhood and city 
building, the municipal zoning law as 
it applies to all multifamily housing. 

Flying over New York you can clearly 
see the depressing evidence of what 
the existing ordinance has wrought- 
a wretched uniformity. Freestanding 
slabs set back from the surrounding 
streets and structures flaunt the social 
and physical character of neighbor- 
hoods. This IS not because develop- 
ers, architects and housing officials 
are mean men. It is because zoning 
derives from precedents like that of 
the 1916 ordinance which mandated 
minimum adequate amounts of light 
and air to assure health and to stem 
the tenement tide The current ordi- 
nance has been translated into an 
economic model which mandates the 
provision of open space in proportion 
to building height. In other words, the 
taller the slab, the more open space 
required 

None of the regulations has anything 
to do with nearby buildings, individual 
ity of neighborhood or uniqueness of 
site. Zoning functions in an abstrac- 
tion with the same rules no matter 
how dramatically different the areas. 

Much recent housing construction 
has disrupted and disconnected the 
character and continuity of New York's 
streets and neighborhoods sealing 
them into sameness in a physical 
sense and into boredom in a social 
sense These buildings intrude on the 
existing patterns of streets and side- 
walks, the beaten paths and byways 
of our lives The HQP proposes 



changes in zoning Dy which new 
buildings could instead include that 
pattern, defining rather than dimin- 
ishing their surroundings. 

Buildings are set far back from the 
street in response to zoning, but to be 
sure, in response to little else Typ- 
ically in New York, older buildings, 
however modest and mundane, edge 
right up to the sidewalk, encouraging 
definition, recognition and encounter. 
Our newer buildings, in bleak contrast, 
defy these values and one has the 
feeling that residents sit in that empty, 
lifeless open space, eyes to the pave- 
ment in order not to be depressed by 
the detention-like atmosphere 

The role of the street as a thread sew- 
ing the neighborhood together is ig- 
nored. Without the thread, the neigh- 
borhood is ripped apart The zoning 
ordinances emphasis upon open 
space grew out of a reaction to New 
York's experience with tenement 
dwellings As such, it represented the 
end of a long chain of meritorious 
laws regulating physical development 
for social good Yet, the failures of 
recent housing demand a new level of 
sophistication and questioning which 
deals not only with the open space as 
abstraction, but with open space as a 
recreation resource for all New 
Yorkers 

The 1961 ordinance does not ask for 
any specific recreation uses to occur 
in open space nor does the ordinance 
require all of the open space to be de- 
veloped, if only for decorative pur- 
poses Growing out of this is the loss 
of a great potential of many sites Even 
when recreational facilities are pro- 
vided, the absence of standards too 
often results in useless, inadequate 
facilities which ignore the needs of the 
residents In fact, the only type of open 
space which the ordinance seems to 
require is that devoted to automobiles 
This is in stnking contrast to its ab- 
sence of concern for recreational 
needs The zoning ordinance allows 
up to 50 percent of the required open 
space on a building site for this perni- 
cious function and too often gratuitous 
recreational areas turn out to be little 
used swatches o( open space en- 
gulfed by cars 

Not only does present zoning create 
development which visually and so- 
cially alienates its surroundings, it cre- 
ates development which ends up 
alienating those who live in, or more 
accurately make do with it The ulti- 
mate rebuff appears in the form of 
chain link fences often bolstered with 
barbed wire. 



23 



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The 27 elements of quality in the HOP 
are the result of a lengthy study by the 
Urban Council The challenge was to 
quantify these elements, to rid the 
effort of abstraction, and to give each 
a score, so to speak, as a basis for 
computing the overall merit of a pro- 
posed housing design These scores 
were devised to add up to a hundred 
points, 25 in each of the four previ- 
ously mentioned categories The ob- 
lective of each category is stated The 
range of options available for achiev- 
ing the objective is clearly listed. So 
IS the required level of compliance 

For example, in the recreation space 
category, the HQP assigns a score of 
three points for providing trees on the 
site It does not say how many trees 
there should be or even where they 
have to go The objective is simply 
that the open space should be shaded 
and attractive and that the total num- 
ber of inches of tree diameter be 
provided If, for instance, one hundred 
inches were required, and a total of 50 
were supplied, the level of compliance 
in this particular element of quality 
would be, of course, 50 percent, or 
1 ,5 points out of a possible three. 

A developer and architect would be 
perfectly welcome to ignore this ele- 
ment, getting a score of zero so long 
as they score a certain level in the over- 
all recreation space category This kind 
of trade-off between the listed options 
in each of the four categories gives 
greater design and economic flexi- 
bility for It does not lock people into a 
narrowly focused design response. 
This IS accomplished by proposing a 
system of flexible optimum values 
rather than the conventional regula- 
tion based upon mimmums while in- 
dividual elements are based upon 
optimums, there isan overall minimum 
which a building must score. 



Mr. Cooper went on to explain other 
aspects of the HQP such as the neigh- 
borhood inn pact category 

One of the vital concerns in the neigh- 
borhood impact category is the qual- 
ity of groundfloor activity, that is, the 
degree to which a new building has 
contact with the street. New buildings 
can enliven the street either through 
architectural treatment on the first few 
stories or through the kinds of activ- 
ities occurring there The HQP encou- 
rages first or second story activities 
which add up to the life of the street 
In many cases such activity would not 
have to have direct access so long as 
whatever is going on is visible at the 
street level. 

Studies and surveys of the Urban De- 
sign Council indicate that existing 
buildings, after scoring with the 27 
quality elements, often reveal this sur- 
prising fact: buildings scoring higher 
are in fact no more expensive than 
buildings scoring very low In fact, it 
was found that most so-called luxury 
housing scored much less well than 
subsidized housing, a very telling turn 
of the tables. 

In Its potential to raise the standards 
of housing for New Yorkers, the Hous- 
ing Quality Program worked into zon- 
ing and design procedures would help 
raise the sights of people who have 
come to feel out of touch with deci- 
sions having to do with the efficiency 
and enjoyment of the places they live 
New Yorkers are beginning to realize 
that they do have a stake and indeed a 
rightful say in helping to shape the 
housing, the streets and the neighbor- 
hoods of their city HQP responds to 
this realization for within its perform- 
ance standards and procedural guide- 
lines IS the possibility of much more 
than a decent dependable roof over 



ones head-the possibility beyond 
that of making people and their needs 
the basis of developmental and de- 
sign effort. 

One of the things that we have been 
trying to keep a very careful watch on 
IS what some of the surprise benefits 
or disbenefits from this proposal will 
be. 1 think there are five predictable 
effects of this kind of regulation. Clear- 
ly there is an urban design concept 
embodied in this zoning resolution 
and It IS that streets are important and 
that buildings do involve themselves 
with the streets Second, there is a 
human concept involved in that the 
objective for the buildings is compati- 
bility Third, there is a very fundamental 
zoning concept that would push be- 
yond single lot lines to involve develop- 
ment within an entire neighborhood. 
The fourth concept is architectural. 

The reaction of the architectural com- 
munity to this proposal has been a 
very nervous one, as nobody really 
likes rating systems very much and 
something that is supposed to be a 
mysterious design process has now 
been catalogued I think that one of 
the benefits of HQP would be that it 
would completely change the process 
of architect selection in New York City. 
Right now it is a very mechanical proc- 
ess There are certain architects who 
know how to use the existing zoning 
formulas, but this new procedure 
would tend to put that architect who 
could achieve the highest level of qual- 
ity into a favorable economic position 
with the people selecting the architect. 

A fifth side effect of this zoning is that 
It would tend to put into the hands of 
tenants, for the first time, a scorecard, 
so that the performance of the archi- 
tect, the developer and the agency 
would be in the public arena, and 
would therefore be held accountable. 



What zoning reform can nnean in terms of 
housing is summarized in this composite 
drawing Both buildings have the same 
floor area, same number of apartments, 
but the 1 7-story tower (left) dwarfs its 
neighbors, sits in a sea of sterile and dan- 
gerous open space, and unfortunately is 
typical of medium density housing built 
under present zoning regulations in New 
York City. The six-story building (right) 
IS in scale with its surroundings, has en- 
closed parking, varied recreation spaces 
and many other improvements proposed 
in the zoning reforms that would produce 
higher quality housing in the City 




24 



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Responding to Needs: A Discussion 
of Participatory Workshops 

Lawrence Halprin 



Mr Halprin first engaged in sonne very 
telling minutes of role-playing. In ttie 
guise of community leader of a fic- 
tional town called "Clintonia." he 
showed slides [gathered from cities 
all over the U.S.] that succinctly char- 
acterized most of today's urban areas 
Our Mr. J. C. described his city's free- 
ways, parking lots, civic center and 
housing, never recognizing the hor- 
rible consequences of the so-called 
modern amenities he proudly pointed 
out. Then dropping his role as Clin- 
tonia booster. Mr. Halprin pointed out 
that most people deserve better than 
what we had seen. what, in fact, is 
the dominant form of our urban en- 
vironments. 

The problem has two parts, opportun- 
ity and process. Many people end up 
with what we have just seen because 
they do not recognize the opportun- 
ities that exist in cities, so let us exam- 
ine some of these and then go on to 
process. 

A waterfront does not have to be 
treated the way we observed it was in 
Clintonia, It is not so much a matter of 
good design, it is a matter of attitude 
It is a way of saying to yourself, Well, 
a river is a great place to be and why 
not be there?" There has to be a mar- 
riage between the natural and the 
manmade environment. In the long 
run, I suppose that is what environ- 
mental design is about 

In San Antonio, the river, as most of 
you know, was a culvert at one time 
and because of the interest of the 
citizens in San Antonio, it has become 
a delightful oasis traversing part of 
downtown. It is no big deal when you 
get to it. In fact, it is quite narrow. It is 
almost inaccessible High-rise build- 
ings impinge on it Bridges go across 
it and yet it graces every little inch along 
the way in which it goes and it wasn't 
that difficult to do. 

Ten years ago, Ghirardelli Square 
seemed like not only a nutty, but a 
difficult thing to do; to take an old 
chocolate factory along the water- 
front, to enhance the waterfront and 
recycle the buildings and find a dif 
ferent use instead of making a Wil- 
liamsburg out of It: to take an old 
building and make it useful in a new 
way IS an opportunity which took not 
only design courage, but development 
courage 

Although I love architecture, am en 
thralled by architecture, am passionate 
about architecture, architecture has 
very little to do with the quality of 



human life in the city. That has to do 
more with what happens as you move 
around in the city, how you use the 
opportunities that the environment 
allows you. 

Streets can become an opportunity 
if you just use them One of the most 
profound kinds of opportunities that 
I have discovered and that seem im- 
portant to me are the ones that extend 
in a kind of choreography throughout 
a city where not one element is de- 
signed or thought of but where link- 
age systems start happening, where 
streets are connected to other streets, 
where pedestrian ways are connected 
to other pedestrian ways, where 
plazas are connected to other plazas, 
and where shops and apartments and 
office buildings are connected with 
pedestrian ways 

In the long run, the interaction, the 
programming, the essential objectives 
of a development of the environment 
depends, not on the architect, al- 
though he can help, but upon the 
client and the people who hire him, 
who supervise and monitor his work, 
who work with him towards devel- 
oping that quality. What we need to do 
IS to develop an architectural framing 
forthose people m administrative posi- 
tions in the Federal Government so 
that as they work with designers they 
will be able to be those very great cli- 
ents that we all are looking for in order 
to accomplish what we need tor our- 
selves as citizens 

We have been looking at this for a long 
time and we have developed a thing 
wecall' Taking Part Workshops, Tak- 
ing Part Workshops allow people to 
inform us about what they would like 
to have in their communities Work- 
shops give them an opportunity not 
to be adversaries with us, but to be 
workers with us in order to achieve 
what we are looking for Now, taking 
part IS experiential It is not didactic 
That IS to say it is not a way of lecturing 
at people It is a way of people working 
together 

We Start all our workshops with 
awareness walks, that establish an 
opportunity for us to interact on the 
same level with people so that they 
grasp what the problems are 

A score (instructions for movement 
in the same sense as a musical score) 
IS mailed out m the community and 
people follow it through on bikes, on 
foot, young and old have an opportun- 
ity, based on that score, to really look 
at their community on an awareness 



25 



iiTT^TViVTiriiriirTirTVTli-TiirTli-Tii-TirTii-TlirTiirTJirTirTirTJV-!!^ 



CLINT 

Vour 




2 MlLEb^ 

rvfl 




"Clintonia" (map, above], the fictiona 
American town described by Mr. Halprin, 
incorporates many of the unfortunate 
characteristics that are dominant in today's 
cities- spaghetti freeways, segregated 
housing and urban sprawl. 

A planning group in a Taking Part Work- 
shop ' IS shown below 



basis and hear various other people 
respond as they walk around. They 
really sense what their connmunity is 
like. They go to places they have never 
seen before. They find that the visual 
sense, the last sense that human be- 
ings develop, is the strongest of the 
senses and tends to wipe out the other 
senses. Very often, we ask people to 
close their eyes for periods of time 
and feel about, sense what is going on, 
sense sound and smell in an environ- 
ment to find out what an impact they 
have on design. 

Later, people start drawing pictures 
and trying to communicate with each 
other about the impact of their com- 
munity on its citizens, and they enjoy 
it very much. People of all ages and 
all incomes and all persuasions work 
together, including oldsters, and fi- 
nally they communicate on many dif- 
ferent levels, because there is not only 
the matter of talking. 

Let's take Fort Worth as an example. 
There we can begin to see some of the 
outcomes and outgrowths of these 
workshops. 

In a helicopter, workshop participants 
flew over the city and saw the almost 
deplorable example of what happens 
when you devote an entire city to only 
one form of transportation, the auto- 
mobile. This is something you can't 
say to people. Until they experience it 
themselves, it is very hard to com- 
municate what that means. They made 
notes about it. 

One of the important things they dis- 
covered was the river, and they pointed 
out that as the river went through their 
community, it was essentially concrete 
lined. It had no quality. It was an impor- 
tant thread that went through and they 
wanted to do something about it. So 
they developed what we call an activity 
score, which is simply a statement of 
the various things that should happen 
along the river and after that workshop, 
the assignment to us was, "Would you 
now, taking our ideas, as profes- 
sionals, develop what you think it could 
look like and how to go about it ' It 
was their idea. 

The river has become a focal point for 
thecultural life of the whole community 
and in that sense, the workshop has, 
through its endeavors at citizen par- 
ticipation and personal participation 
given direction to the form and the 
environmental art of the Fort Worth 
community. 



26 






Visual Communications 















^^^•^'^■'^"•'^ 



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28 Participants 

32 New Federal Graphics 
Case Study: 
Department of Labor 

John Massey 

35 New Federal Graphics 
Case Study: 
Department of Agriculture 

David Sutton 

38 Panel Discussion: 
^j^^ Who Says It's Good Design? 

^j^jj. Tom Gormley, Moderator, 

^^j^ Peter Masters, George 
^ Hornby, Milton Glaser, 
^ Pieter Brattinga 

%'^'^'^ 42 Panel Discussion: 

Does It Have To Be Printed? 

Lorna Shanks, Moderator, 
Eli Cantor, Thomas 
McCormick, Harley Parker, 
Thomas Williams 

'^^^.^i^^iri^'*'* Influencing the Design 
^ Future 

^^^ Dietmar Winkler 












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if^ij.^^^ 



Visual Communications 




"iirPieter Brattinga, designer, educator and 
author, is senior partner of Form Media- 
tion, International, a management con- 
sultantfirmforartand design, Amsterdam, 



■jV Tom Gormley, artist, photographer and 
designer, is a professor at Cooper Union. 
He has worked as a free-lance graphic de- 
signer and consultant for several firms 
including Experiments in Art and Tech- 
nology, Inc. 




"i^ Peter Masters is Art Director for the Office 
of Economic Opportunity where he has 
designed logos for the agency's programs, 
as well as graphic materials including a 
photo exhibit, "Profiles in Poverty " 



^ 



I 



1^ 



if 



'if 




■ix Eli Cantor is Chairman of the Board of 
Printing Industries of America, represent- 
ing 7,800 printing establishments From 
1965-1971, he was director of a leading 
graphic showcase, Gallery 303 in New 
York 




■j^Sr Milton Glaser, graphic designer, is co- 
founder and partner of Push Pin Studios. 
New York He is also the Design Director 
and Chairman of the Board of New York 
magazine 



tV George Hornby is Creative Projects Edi- 
tor for Crown Publishers, Inc.. New York 
and serves as advisory Art Director for 
Crowns jackets and illustrated books. 




if John Massey is founder and Director of 
the Center for Advanced Research in De- 
sign and Director of Corporate and Mar- 
keting Communication for Container 
Corporation of America 




-jilrThomas F. McCormick was appointed 
Public Printer of the United States in 
March, 1973. His professional experience 
includes twenty years with General Electric 
as Manager. Accounting Operations; Man- 
ager, Business Analysis and Budgets, 
Advertising and Sales Promotion Depart- 
ment; and Financial Analyst. Industrial and 
Information Group. 




i^ Harley Parker is Research Associate at 
the Centre for Culture and Technology. 
Ontario Prior to his work at the Centre. 
Mr. Parker was Professor of Communica- 
tions. Rochester Institute of Technology. 
Director of Design. Royal Ontario Museum, 
and Associate Professor. Fordham 
University 



^^j^ 



28 



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V 






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xy 



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'?^ ^wy-iri^:?-?-^S '^« ^^'s As part 

S^K,^-^^^#^ Jjt P^o^ement Proc 



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it Jerome H. Perlmutter is Coordinator of 
Federal Graphics, National Endowment for 
of the Federal Design Im- 
rogram, he is directing an 
effort to strengthen visual communica- 
tions throughout the Federal Government 



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>j-^5^!^^^^^fe, ^ Carl Purcell is Visual IVledia Officer. 
■v^J&i'^ ^x!-yt , Agency for International Development, De- 



^jf-j. partment of State. 



«>^^ 



it David Sutton, graphic designer, is Chief. 
Design Division, Office of Communica- 
tion. Department of Agriculture Prior to 
entering Federal service, he was Vice 
President of George Nelson & Company, 
designers, architects and planners 




T^ Thomas F. Williams is Director, Technical 
Information Staff, Office of Solid Waste 
Management Programs, Environmen- 
tal Protection Agency 



'***:} 



*** 



fe^-A' 



********* 

******^^^* 




■i^Lorna Shanks, Special Assistant to the 
Federal Graphics Coordinator of the Na- 
tional Endowment for the Arts, is working 
with Federal agencies to upgrade graphics 
and visual communications 




^^t^: 






29 




it Dietmar R. Winkler, yaphi, designer, is 
Director of the Graduate Program ot Visual 
Design, Southeastern Massachusetts 
University 



T^T!i'Tir-5ViVT!!rT!i--A-i^TVTVT!VTV-!VT!!ri!iri!^iVi!^i!rT!i'T!!r^ 



I 




Patchwork Productions: Ingrid Crepeau 

(Peter Principle], puppet designer; 
Sarah Toth Yochum [Millie Modern), au- 
thor, Julian Yochum (Leroy Letterman), 
author Patchwork Productions is a re- 
cently-formed company whose members 
previously worked for five years with Allan 
Stevens and Company at the Smithsonian 
Resident Puppet Theater 





In several brief, witty vignettes Patchwork 
Productions pinpointed many of the critical 
issues that arise between client, designer 
and editor in the process of producing 
printed communications 




30 



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Examples of historical Federal graphic 
design were illustrated in Intermedia Sys- 
tems Corporation s presentation. This is 
Federal Design 



31 



T!!rT!VTVT!^TViV-i!VT!i-iirT!!r-iV-A-Tir-i!^i^i!ir-iir-iirTlri^ 



The New Federal Graphics 
Case Study: Department of Labor 

John Massey 



TheCenter for Advanced Research in 
Design, as consultant to the Depart- 
ment of Labor, was asked to evaluate 
the graphic aspects of the Depart- 
ment's communications program, 
and to recommend procedures by 
which graphics could facilitate the 
Department's overall communica- 
tions objectives. 

Our first task was to prepare a written 
programof procedure, which included 
a statement of objectives, a schedule 
of tasks to be performed, time and 
cost schedules. The program of pro- 
cedure was organized in five chron- 
ological steps: 1) briefings; 2) data 
collection; 3] analysis; 4] design func- 
tion [the development of graphic solu- 
tions); and 5] validation [application 
to specific projects). 

The reality of today's Department of 
Labor centers around the function of 
enforcing statutes designed to ad- 
vance the public interest, by promot- 
ing the welfare of U.S. wage earners, 
improving their working conditions 
and advancing their opportunities for 
profitable employment. In order to 
fulfill Its charge, the Department is 
organized into a series of offices that 
administer specific programs. 

The administrative offices are; 

1) Manpower Administration; 2) 
Labor-Management Services Admin- 
istration; 3) Employment Standards 
Administration; 4) Occupational Safe- 
ty and Health Administration; and 5} 
Bureau of Labor Statistics. 

Problem areas in connection with the 
development of a proposed graphics 
system were as follows; 1) Need to 
upgrade outdated, old, impersonal 
and unresponsive Department images; 

2) Inadequate reinforcement or pro- 
jection of Department image on 
bureau or program level; 3) Poor or 
inadequate response/liaison with the 
Government Printing Office; 4} Lack 
of effective tools and criteria to which 
agency heads can refer in connection 
with communication planning and 
implementation; 5) Inadequate means 
for implementing uniform and effec- 
tive communication policy; 6) Lack 
of sufficient image continuity existing 
in and between the Department and 
its constituent administrative offices 
and bureaus; 7} Need to reorganize 
and strengthen the administrative, 
professional and technical services 
provided by the Department's 
graphics services staff. 



The reasons for attacking these prob- 
lem areas at this time were as follows; 

1) To humanize the image projected 
by the Department in all of its activities; 

2) To increase the level of design sen- 
sitivity and awareness within the De- 
partment; 3) To increase effective- 
ness of the Department's communi- 
cation efforts; 4) To reflect or expose 
the service/idea oriented attributes 
of the Department; 5) To promote and 
support more direct communication 
with Department publics; 6) To make 
more effective, useful, and available 
the skills and services of the Depart- 
ment's graphics service staff; 7) To 
increase public insight into, and 
mastery, awareness and understand- 
ing of the Department, its administra- 
tive offices, bureaus and programs. 

In the area of design goals and in 
addition to organizing the proposed 
graphics system to resolve the prob- 
lems, consideration was also given to 
providing the Department with; 
1) Uniformity of identification; 2) A 
standard of quality; 3) A more sys- 
tematic and economic template for 
publication design; 4] A closer rela- 
tionship between graphic design [as 
a means) and program development 
[as an end) so that the proposed 
graphics system will become an ef- 
fective tool in assisting the Depart- 
ment to achieve program objectives. 

A viable design solution must clearly 
support this information dissemina- 
tion program, and the content of each 
printed piece must be immediately 
legible and understandable. 

Each piece must be recognizable as 
having emanated from the U.S. De- 
partment of Labor, and the inherent 
character of the design itself must 
communicate the content of the piece. 
Obviously, the most important aspect 
of any printed piece is its content. The 
new format for the Department of 
Labor places primary emphasis on 
the title/content of each publication. 

A Department of Labor Communica- 
tion Design element, or logo, was 
developed to appear on all Depart- 
mentcommunications in combination 
with the title. This design element does 
not replace the official Department 
seal. It will be used in a manner similar 
to the flag of the United States which 
stands for " the United States of 
America but does not, in any way, 
supersede or replace the official seal 
of the country. The Department of 
Labor's current official seal is very 
similar in design to many other 



32 



j!rT!!rTirT!i-T!i'T!i-T!irTJrT:!rT!i^T!!ri!!rTl^Tl^-i!V-i!^T!^T!i-i^ 



Minimum Wage ;ind Mammum Hours ^ 
Standards Under the Fair ^ 

L abor Standards Act 



mi max 



mum mum 
wagehours 




General Industry Guide for applying Ar-^ 
Safety and Healtti Standards ^^ 


A 


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1 








1 


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Careers in Safety 

and Health: 

The Occupational Nurse 



■ *',. 





Emptoyer-Emptoy 
Safe Practices for 
Excavation A 
Trenching Operations 




It's Easy to Hire 
Teen Agers 



ID 17 18 
1718 



Labor OfficM 

in the United States 

and Canada 







^ . ^ T^ 



• * * • 



Examples of recent publications of the 
Department of Labor, designed with the 
consultation of The Center for Advanced 
Research in Design Emphasis is placed on 
clear identification of content, consistent 
format and identification of the Department 
through the use of a recognizable design 
element, or logo 



33 



T!^'T!r-5!lrT!i-T!!rTl!r-il!rTirT!!rT!!rT!irT!i-Tl^t!rT!VT^TirT^Ti^ 



Workmens 
Compensation 
for Persons in 
Maritime 
Occupations 






A Ckiick Look 
at Hours Worked 
Under the 
Fair Labor 
Standards Act 



U S Oepani 
Wage tin,™ 1 1 
Artit'in,M-,j' r 



fA^ 



government seals, and when repro- 
duced small, or viewed from a dis- 
tance, it IS not easily recognized. With 
the addition of the new design element 
in the program, the Department of 
Labor's communications will be in- 
stantly and uniformly recognized. 

At this point, we are working closely 
with the Government Printing Office 
to establish standards of sizes, typog- 
raphy, grid systems, paper specifi- 
cations, and colors. Tremendous 
economies can be realized through 
the adoption of these standards and 
yet they impose no limitations on the 
creativity of the Department's design- 
ers, editors and information officers. 
In fact, such standards should allow 
the staff more time to concentrate on 
the creative aspects of their publica- 
tions because the mechanics are 
predetermined. 

After the concept has been validated 
by applying it to select upcoming 
projects the final phase will be imple- 
mentation. This phase will be the 
development of a standards manual 
for the Department which will be the 
guideline for all future printed 
material. 





A second family of recent Department of 
Labor publications. Through the adoption 
of standard formats, grids, papers, colors 
and typography, the Department will 
create a flexible system that allows for 
creativity within an economically sound 
framework. 



34 



}rT!^-i^T!i-T:!rT!i-Tiril!rTJrTV'i:!rT!^T!!rT!i'-il!rT!!rT!irT!irir-i^^ 



The New Federal Graphics 

Case Study: 

Department of Agriculture 

David Sutton 



The Department of Agriculture is a 
collection of agencies, sonnetimes uni- 
fied and sometimes not unified in 
their visual approaches to communi- 
cation. There are over 20 agencies 
in the Department, and many 
audiences, urban as well as rural. 
What sometimes may satisfy the dairy 
man doesn't satisfy the poultry man, 
and so it goes. In relating to a number 
of different kinds of American audi- 
ences, what do you do and how do 
you begin in a very complex and very 
large agency? 

In the Design Division of the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture there is a thing 
called a working capital fund. Clients 
come in and pay us for our time. So 
we operate within government as a 
private design office m terms of finan- 
cial structure. It is about a million dol- 
lar a year operation. 

The Department has a large publica- 
tion house, with over 3,000 titles on 
the market, some 54 million copies 
printed annually. Today there are 13 
exhibits spread out across the United 
States that come out of the Design 
Division. There are congresses, agri- 
cultural symposia, and many other 
things that have to do with agriculture 
and good nutrition or whatever the 
program of the Department may be 
at the time. 

Mr Sutton described the processes 
used in ttie evaluation of existing 
graphic designs used by the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture and showed 
examples of specific projects for which 
new designs are being developed. 

Like everyone else in government, we 
responded to the energy cnsis. We 
cleverly came up with a split E, a frac- 
tured E for energy. After we went 
through the whole program we dis- 
covered that everybody else had come 
up with the same idea. But we went 
through a series of projects and came 
up with several publications and some 
stickers that some of the agencies 
sent out to encourage farmers to keep 
their tractors tuned up, to save gas 
and energy 

The problem is often replacement and 
implementation For example, we 
have a very complex book about 
kitchen equipment for schools. If you 
print it on both sides of the page, you 
have a terrible replacement factor 
when the art information on one side 
becomes obsolete and the information 
is still good So we suggested that the 
reverse side be printed as a notebook 
so that users could make notes of 



these apparatus items as they learn 

them and use them. 

Your replacement factor is much sim- 
pler if you print on one side Same 
thing in a management fact book we 
recently did for the Department. There 
was a problem in organization, up- 
dating and replacement, as much as 
design. 

We have been responding to prob- 
lems and slowly upgrading the De- 
partments visual communications. 
The designers within house have cer- 
tainly caught on and been responsive 
to the exhibits and graphics areas. 

To avoid reinventing the wheel for 
each job, we have approached some 
studies of what we call the visual meas- 
urement system for the Department. 
We studied some 200 or 300 publica- 
tions from the Department of Agricul- 
ture, from othergovernment agencies, 
from the private sector, from the agri- 
community, as it is called. In other 
words, what is our competition^ What 
is the farmer getting from sources 
other than the Department of Agricul- 
ture'r' We have even done a study of 
junk mail I think there is something 
to learn there. 

We have gradually identified a few 
things: inconsistencies in titles, incon- 
sistencies in size and inconsistencies 
in locations of the agency name and 
the agency symbol. As you know, by 
the way, the Department of Agricul- 
ture has some of the most successful 
symbols in the United States Smokey 
the Bear and some others You don't 
destroy them because they are ex- 
tremely successful We are expen- 
menting with several formats We have 
actually designed and tested a couple 
of dozen. 

We are constantly training people, 
getting new and different kinds of per- 
sonnel We have an environmental 
designer doing exhibits; an industrial 
designer doing graphics We find that 
we have some very good mixtures of 
talents We are trying to get some re- 
gional influence over the vast number 
of publications out in the field We are 
constantly trying to keep up with the 
latest techniques in computer graph- 
ics and typesetting toward general 
publication improvement 



35 



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1 



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trt* crop r«p 








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1 




THE ACRE TAKERS 



••••• 




••**• 



• • * * 



sayenergy 



WHAT OUR FARM EXPORTS 
MEAN TO THE WORLD 



AGRICULTURAL TRADE 

ITS GROWING IMPORTANCE 

TO THE NATION S ECONOMY 



■ .R£ • OfFiCE OP COUWUMCATlO^ 






WHAT MAKES 

U.S. FARM TRADE GROW 



us INTERNATIONAL 
AGRICULTURAL TRADE 
ITS GROWING IMPORTANCE 
TO THE NATION'S ECONOMY 



D STATES OEPABTMENT OF AGRICULTURE • QPFICE OF COMMUNICATION 




WHAT FARM EXPORTS 
MEAN TO YOU 



U.S. INTERNATIONAL 
AGRICULTURAL TRADE; 
ITS GROWING I 
TO THE NATIONS ECONOMY 



UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE • OFFICE OF COMMUNICATION 




The process of devising workable graphic 
systems for the various agencies of the 
Department of Agriculture is demonstrated 
in the before and after versions of Agricul- 
ture s Statistical Reporting Service 

Agricultures split E, a response to the 
need for energy conservation, is used in 
many ways in Department publications 
and stickers 

A series of new pamphlets for the Depart- 
ment's Office of Communication, on topics 
relating to agricultural exports, again illus- 
trate the benefits of a recognizable system. 



36 



^•■i!VT!!rT:^TV-^T!^Tir-^T!^T!^-iVT!ViVTVTV-iirT!^T:!rTi^T!!rTV^ 



Following Mr. Sutton's presentation, 
Mr Perim utter took questions from 
the audience for Mr. Sutton and Mr. 
Massey. 

Question: I noticed Mr Massey and 
Mr Sutton, many of the pieces you 
designed use two or more colors. I 
wonder if either of you had any diffi- 
culty in convincing your clients of the 
cost effectiveness of designing or 
printing in more than one color, for 
communication to the public, 

Sutton: I will respond to that briefly by 
saying this is one reason why I don't 
think that we will ever have one, uni- 
fied design format for the entire De- 
partment of Agriculture. To use more 
than one color, requires a long )us- 
tification process. The determination 
IS frequently made before we get the 
publication. Sometimes agencies 
come to us and ask us to use our in- 
fluence to help them get color. For 
example, in the food and nutrition 
service it is important to show bright 
colors But because of cost we have to 
be prepared to design all our publi- 
cations for one color. 

Massey: The way we have looked at 
the whole color thing is to begin with 
the premise that the most important 
element of a particular piece is con- 
tent, making printed matter under- 
standable to the person receiving it. 

You begin the process by trying to 
determine if you can do it in black and 
white. If you can do a very strong de- 
sign in black and white, that's all you 
need If you determine that you need 
a color for vitality, or any other reason, 
then you begin to use a color. It de- 
pends on the audience In many cases 
it's not that much more expensive to 
do two colors than it is one. 

Perlmutter: is there any difference be- 
tween working in the private sector 
and working with the government^' 

Massey: I entered into this whole 
thing with a certain amount of trepida- 
tion, but I really found that what has 
happened is no different within the 
Department of Labor than it is in the 
private sector. 

It reallygets down to working with peo- 
ple and trying to develop rational solu- 
tions to problems Approaching them 
in a very orderly, unemotional way, 
and forming some kind of a base for 
the objectives of the whole program 
Then you get to the fun part, which is 
trying to make those objectives real- 
izable, in some sort of a way, involving 



imagery and spirit and that kind of 
thing. I really can't find any difference 

Sutton: I have found very little differ- 
ence. I have found that if you sit down 
and take a moment to explain to a 
client your point of view, no one gets 
up and storms out of the room. 

I think I have had better success in 
government or as good as outside. I 
believe very strongly that the client has 
a good point of view, and the client 
knows something you don't know. He 
is the one explaining his problem to 
you. I believe in dialogue with the 
client, and I use this in the private sec- 
tor and in the public sector. 

Question: Mr Massey designed a 
total system for the entire Labor De- 
partment. Mr. Sutton's approach is to 
allow each department its own system. 
What is the rationale for each ap- 
proach? 

Massey: One of the objectives we ar- 
rived at in our initial briefing analysis 
for the Department of Labor was the 
need for unification in all of the mes- 
sages emanating from the Depart- 
ment of Labor. At one point in our 
development, we were emphasizing 
one of the five administrative offices, 
and sublimating the Department of 
Labor. Our final solution, of course, 
was to emphasize the content of each 
publication. The most important thing 
IS what the publication says and how 
it says it to the audience. So we put 
primary emphasis on that Below that, 
we have the United States Department 
of Labor, and then Manpower, or 
whatever it might be. So everything 
IS unified. The recipient, by and large, 
is more interested in the information 
he gets than in where it comes from. 

We wanted to establish a format that 
would be applicable to maybe 85 or 
90 percent of the Department's printed 
material, leaving about ten or fifteen 
percent open to any kind of format 

Sutton: I can't answer the question at 
this time of whether there will be an 
overall USDA image We are simply 
trying to bring together some of the 
most serious problems first 

For instance, in one agency we have 
counted 37 different publication sizes. 
We feel we can get into four vertical 
formats and one horizontal format We 
don t know yet, about the overall 
USDA image. 



Question: Why must each agency and 
department of government have its 
very own symbol and letterhead? Why 
can't we all have the same? 

Massey: That's a good question I have 
asked myself. I don't have the answer, 
but it IS something, I am sure, that we 
all think about. 

I am really against stereotype solu- 
tions, but I am for order and I am for 
creativity within order If you follow 
that point of view to its ultimate con- 
clusion, perhaps there should be a 
format or a design or concept for all 
government publications, printed ma- 
terial, and so forth But I am certainly 
not in the position to offer any final 
opinion on that question. 

Perlmutter: There are ten other 
agencies moving ahead in a similar 
vein to Labor and Agriculture: the 
Civil Service Commission, Depart- 
ment of Commerce, the Environment- 
al Protection Agency, the Federal 
Energy Administration, Social Secur- 
ity, Comptroller of the Currency, 
NASA, National Institutes of Health, 
and the National Zoo. 

We hope that all agencies of govern- 
ment will respond to the graphics pro- 
grams as administrators recognize 
what design can accomplish 



37 



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Panel Discussion: 

Who Says it's Good Design? 

Tom Gormley, Moderator, Peter Masters, 
George Hornby, Milton Glaser, 
Pieter Brattinga 



Two topics suggested by Mr Gormley 
provided the general subiect areas for 
the panel discussion. 1) Who has the 
responsibility for what design is and. 
2] What IS the design process? The 
panel addressed itself to the following 
issues implied in those topics: 1) What 
IS good design, and who says it's good 
design'^: 2) What is the balance be- 
tween function and beauty?: 3] Sys- 
tem/Coherence vs- individual expres- 
sion: 4) The role of receiver/client in 
determining how information is com- 
municated: 5) The relationship of tra- 
ditional forms and analytic approach 
in communication and the impulse 
for innovation in design: and 6] What 
is the intention of the institution/client'^ 

1 ] What IS good design, and who says 
Its good design? 

Masters: The nnost succinct answer to 
"Who says it's good design?" Is "I," 
The necessity for being more selective 
than that should lead to a process of 
education in how to be analytical, how 
to be critical. The designer's role then 
Is partly to educate the client: and the 
client must listen to the designer. De- 
signers must be allowed to defend 
what they are trying to do Good de- 
sign is determined by an educated 
and "analyzed" judgment. 

There are standards, absolutes, for 
determining whatgood design is. They 
are arrived at by study and criticism. 
One must not say I don't like that. I 
don't know why." Rather, the state- 
ments I like it because, " or I don't 
like it because," are necessary to a 
worthwhile determination 

Glaser: An objective of good design is 
to organize material in a cohesive and 
understandable way. If a system is 
stylistically understood, it is called 
good design. However, inherent in 
this system of clarity and order which 
promotes effective communications 
IS the capacity at that point of effective- 
ness to create boredom and thus lose 
Its efficiency because of its good 
design. 

The question of * Who says its good 
design ' should be resolved by accept- 
ing the designer as a professional. 
Professional means respect for judg- 
ment An explanation for the lack of 
respect for the designer's judgment 
lies in the nature of perception Every- 
body feels that his/her judgment has 
validity, if not equal to, in some way 
comparable to the professional to 
whom one goes. The relationship of 
designer/client involves a suspicion 



that the designer's motivation is op- 
posed to the essential motivation of 
the client. The suspicion rests in the 
belief that the designer's allegiance 
to art will, in fact, submerge the 
objective of the client. 

Thissuspicion can be partially removed 
by a process of education. A designer, 
in fact, can be as professional in his 
orientation and responsibility as any 
other professional, and, given the right 
circumstances, can be entrusted to the 
same degree that one might entrust a 
brain surgeon. 

2} What is the balance between func- 
tion and beauty? 

Masters: Things should be beautiful 
and functional; and, generally, func- 
tional things are beautiful. 

Glaser: The initial training of a designer, 
as artist, leads him to look for some- 
thing other than the functional aspect 
of design. The designer has a notion 
of beauty that he wishes to communi- 
cate beyond the known processes of 
communicating information. But the 
function of design in communicating 
information clearly conflicts with this 
notion, and the designer thus attempts 
to rid himself of it. 

Hornby: The Government Printing 
Office and the Library of Congress 
should be initiators in improving the 
graphic arts. Both agencies have a 
technical excellence and well-meaning 
quality, but have neglected beauty. 

Government ' donts " such as not 
necessarily using color, "do not directly 
conflict with achieving good design. A 
)ob must be considered in functional 
terms- how it gets across the mes- 
sage. If the use of color enhances 
communication, it should be used. 
The tools of design, like color, must 
be used to make the job accomplish 
Its purpose; tools should not be used 
for their own sake. 

3] System/Coherence vs individual 
expression. 

Glaser: Inherent in the nature of com- 
municating information with clarity, 
and in a cohesive manner, is the need 
for an organized design system. The 
procedures involved in establishing 
that system neutralize individual con- 
tributions and inhibit the possibility for 
the new As a professional, you really 
go to solutions that are risk-free, and 
the greater your success level the 
more professional you are considered 



38 



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But Dy eliminating the new, the de- 
signer Is limiting the possibilities for 
a change In vision, which is one of the 
life-enhancing activities. The solution 
lies In a useful synthesis of the two, 
not the domination of one by the other. 

Masters: From the government point 
of view, the question might be, how 
much should individual expression be 
curbed? If you standardize, you obvi- 
ously curb Individual expression. 
Should we go uniform to eliminate all 
this junk, or should we take the risk 
of not standardizing anything? 

4] The role of receiver/client in de- 
termining how information is com- 
municated. 

Brattinga: As designers, you are com- 
municating from one group to another, 
and the "receiver" group must not 
be forgotten. The people who have 
to use the Information should find 
It easy and not time-consuming to 
read. The increased volume of com- 
munication compels the designer to 
consider the available time of the 
receiver. 

Glaser: When you get Into design 
activity as such, your client, govern- 
ment or otherwise, is always con- 
cerned about communicating 
Information without interference, with- 
out personality, without any of the 
resonances that can confuse the nature 
of the message. 

To deal effectively with communica- 
tion, it is necessary to understand what 
people know That Implies an under- 
standing of the history of communica- 
tion-its forms and conditions. The 
designer Is dealing with a vernacular 
language and form of address. Most 
of the time he is dealing with the 
known 

To know what people know is a ques- 
tion of observing how people are 
addressed in terms of the popular 
media, TV, radio, direct mail, paper- 
back books. The forms of popular 
medlaare known and understood; and 
these forms then provide a context 
for operating as a designer Once 
the effectiveness of these forms is 
understood, it is possible to contribute 
a new insight in the design process. 

5] Analytic approach and traditional 
forms in communication, and the im- 
pulse for innovation In design. 

Hornby: It would be desirable to have 
a group of designers who look to 
tradition, who accept a certain restraint 



and self-discipline without calling it 
regimentation. Most of what Is pre- 
sented as innovation is in fact "old hat." 

Masters: Analysis of a problem should 
not be carried to extremes. An 
approach to a problem which is en- 
tirely intellectual reduces the chances 
for innovation, which relies on an ele- 
ment of risk. "Safe" solutions usually 
lead to boredom. 

Glaser: In terms of material produced 
by industry and government, the issue 
of innovation is not pertinent at the 
present time. The immediate need is 
to bring material to an acceptable level 
of coherence and unity. In general 
terms of design activity, innovation is 
not appropriate. Innovation means a 
lot of understanding, by definition. The 
new is always misunderstood. 

The real function of design activity is 
to communicate a specific body of in- 
formation, and that must be done 
through a vehicle of communication 
already understood. In communicat- 
ing through the known, you try to re- 
flect a spirit that exists- move toward 
the contemporary, and by doing so 
you are more able to communicate 
information. The problem is knowing 
what the communication tradition is; 
using what is understood through 
some innovative means, within the re- 
strictions of the known. 

6] What IS the intention of the 
institution/client? 

Masters: There have been questions 
which said, "Why don't we have one 
simple format for government?" "Do 
we need different agencies, jealously 
guarding their own images, which, 
very frequently, aren't worth pre- 
serving?" 

Glaser: There is no reason why ma- 
terial produced bythe Federal Govern- 
ment should look like the material 
produced by a trucking company, un- 
less the intention of both institutions 
is almost identical. The designer looks 
for a way to express the unique per- 
sonality of the institution he represents. 
This becomes, however, a difficult 
thing to do if the institution itself has 
no coherent idea of its personality. 



39 



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40 



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The images on this page and opposite are 
additional elements from "This is Federal 
Design" (see p 31 ), a slide/sound presen 
tation designed for the Assembly This 
program was produced by Intermedia 
Systems Corporation, and funded by the 
National Endowment tor the Arts and the 
United States Army Audiovisual Service 



41 



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Panel Discussion: 

Does It Have To Be Printed? 

Lorna Shanks, Moderator, Eli Cantor, 
Thomas McCormick, Harley Parker, 
Thomas Williams 



The panel of four speakers addressed 
itself to botf) tt)e content and form of 
visual communications. Eli Cantor 
and Ttio'mas McCormick spoke pri- 
marily of form in the printed medium; 
Harley Parker presented the concept 
of alternative forms to printed com- 
munication; and Thomas Williams 
emphasized content of the informa- 
tion to be communicated. 

Cantor: Design quality is an innportant 
priority. Deternnining what that quality 
is rests primarily in the purpose ot 
the printed communication. That pur- 
pose is two-fold: to have the message 
read, and to leave a desirable impres- 
sion of how that message is commu- 
nicated, that is, the printed message 
must be regarded as an extension of 
the communicator. The message pro- 
jects the communicator's image in 
this case, the design must stimulate a 
sense of pride in government. 

Winning attention for the printed mes- 
sage demands a variety of designs; 
but variety must not be overdone. In 
terms of design of government pub- 
lications, appropriateness, uniformity 
and cohesion should be considered. 

Solutions must be found in terms of 
the nature of the work. That is, different 
design imperatives for different kinds 
of work. The design imperatives for 
an IRS form and a good textbook are 
different. It's misleading to indicate 
there is one solution basic for all, even 
if you do have the parameters of the 
basic style, which I believe are 
necessary. 

A consideration of typefaces used in 
design exemplifies how quality is 
determined in terms of communica- 
tion. Quoting John Shushold, "The 
aim of typography must not be self- 
expression " Typography should be a 
servant Typefaces should be selected 
in terms of legibility, rather than 'good 
design." Choice of layout and use of 
spacing should also be determined by 
legibility. Typography or any design 
elements must not intervene to the 
point of adding "static "to the message. 

McCormick: The Joint Committee on 
Pnnting, consisting of two Congres- 
sional and two Senate representatives 
formulates regulations for govern- 
ment printing. The regulations are 
subject to change and revision an- 
nually, and the staff of the JCP holds 
meetingswherethere isan opportunity 
for designers' input. 



The Government Printing Office has 
no control over what is printed, how it 
is designed, or whether it should be 
printed. Those areas are within the 
control of the agency producing the 
publication. The GPO and private 
printers (who do 60 percent of gov- 
ernment work) should, however, con- 
tribute more to making government 
publications usable. This can be ac- 
complished by ensuring more contact 
between printer and designer and 
editor, within each agency. 

The GPO as a service organization 
has added staff to the typographic 
and design division, in an effort to give 
increased support and advice to the 
agency-customer. The GPO now 
offers a semi-annual editors' course, 
and will inaugurate a design seminar 
for Federal artists. 

Printing is a minor part of communi- 
cation. Design and content are the 
major determinants of good commu- 
nication. Design considerations must 
be balanced against economic 
factors— i.e. standardizing results in 
significant savings. Another consider- 
ation is the current paper shortage. 
If paper supply does not match in- 
creased demand, alternatives must be 
sought. This leads to a concept of 
tailohng the publication to its use and 
audience. Does it have to be printed 
on paper at all? Should the informa- 
tion be in the form of microfilm, stored 
in a data bank for recall with single 
copy printings on demand, instead of 
bulk quantities printed initially? 

In otherwords, communication should 
not be considered only in terms of the 
traditional printed medium. Electronic 
and micrographic means of com- 
munications should be recognized 
as coexisting and competing media. 

Parker: The function of designers in 
our world is, first of all, to be intensely 
aware of the audience to which they 
are communicating, because they 
make the communication. 

The impact of electronic media has 
resulted in the decline of quality in 
writing, and quality of ability to read. 
This suggests that phonetic literacy 
will be dead within the next 20 years. 
A detrimental aspect of phonetic 
literacy is that it leads to a deprivation 
of sensory perceptions. For the ma- 
jority of communications, other media 
are more suitable. The only field in 
which a highly developed phonetic 
alphabet is needed is science, where 
specialization within communication 
structure is important. 



42 



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In terms of relating comnnunication 
medium to audience, it is apparent 
that only a small percentage depend 
upon the techniques of the phonetic 
alphabet. For the majority, idiogramic 
writing, or media which address the 
ear, are more appropriate. 

The ear is an appropriate sensory 
receptor for today's communications. 
It allows for total absolute involve- 
ment, as opposed to the dispassionate 
survey which is the result of phonetic 
literacy. Simultaneity of communica- 
tions is possible with the ear. The 
imperative is to create literacy in all 
methods of communication. 

Williams: The balanced structure of 
the government as created by the 
Constitution was devised to keep the 
citizen in control of his destiny. Con- 
trol is maintained through communi- 
cation. With the current level of com- 
munications media, it is ironic that 
most citizens feel powerless to influ- 
ence events. Today's communication 
IS characterized by distortion and 
static. Remedies for improved com- 
munications lie not in technology of 
communication, but in content. 

The environmental movement repre- 
sented the first challenge to the 
random use of technology, and it 
led to an awareness of subject matter 
which previously had been the con- 
cern of only a few experts. A result of 
this awareness was the realization 
that some scientific data needed to 
make proper choices was either non- 
existent, or incomplete. The creation 
of agencies within government whose 
attention was directed to a misuse of 
technology has made evident the fact 
that the problems of protecting the 
citizen in the technological jungle of 
our time permeates the entire fabric 
of society 

Questions of technology assessment 
bear on domestic and foreign policy 
considerations of the highest order, 
hence, on the activities of all Federal 
agencies. Technology management 
is subject to human error The realiz- 
ation that interpretation of scientific 
and social data can be influenced by 
unknown, unconscious cultural and 
personal factors has led to an in- 
creased citizen participation in gov- 
ernmental and private institution deci- 
sion-making. 

The public's desire for participation, 
and for exerting an influence to make 
institutions more responsive to public 
will, provides a challenge to agencies 
whose responsibility it is to gather. 



develop, and disseminate information 
for the use of Congress, industry and 
the people. The agencies are always 
required to gather information about 
the problems addressed by legislation, 
and to make that information available 
to the Congress and the public. 

The directive for accomplishing this 
communication (in view of the monu- 
mental volume of information) is two- 
fold: 1 ] communications from govern- 
ment agencies must be based on valid 
scientific information; 2] agencies have 
an obligation to communicate the es- 
sence of complex issues in such a way 
that what is communicated can be 
understood by the voting public, yet 
cannot be successfully challenged by 
expert opinion at any point on the 
political spectrum. 

The communications challenge to 
Federal agencies is greater than that 
facing any other institutions. It cannot 
or should not employ the same tech- 
niques used in commercial advertising. 
Federal agencies must process a stag- 
gering amount of data; and the infor- 
mation should be in such a form as to 
invite the citizen's examination of it. 

Making use of various communica- 
tions media enables as broad a spec- 
trum of the public as possible to think, 
act and vote with the fullest possible 
awareness of issues. Achievement of 
these purposes rests in reliable con- 
tinuity of information gathered and 
disseminated, and this in turn implies 
that the information is developed and 
disseminated by professionally qual- 
ified people. 

Theavailability to government agencies 
of communications through private, 
commercial media such as TV should 
be re-examined in terms of opportunity 
as well as restraints. If government 
agency messages are accurate, hon- 
est and comprehensive, there should 
be a correspondingly greater oppor- 
tunity for them to reach the public. 

Lessening the gaps and static in com- 
munication among people and their 
institutions depends upon the integrity 
of the information developed by gov- 
ernment agencies and its availability 
to the people. 





The bugler, flagman and drummer (right) 
demonstrate several means of communi 
cation that do not have to be printed 




43 



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Influencing the Design Future 

Dietmar Winkler 



If you move into a house that is a 
shambles, wouldn t you first clean it up 
before you decorate if?" This is really 
the crux of the problem Therefore, I 
can't talk about the future right now, 
because we must have a strong foun- 
dation first before we can deal with 
sophisticated aesthetic questions 
First we need basic quality, then inter- 
pretation Because of the enormous 
quantity of government communica- 
tions that must be interpreted for the 
public, we need to find out which sys- 
tems work well 

People will be short-changed if we limit 
ourselves to one or two answers 
Whatever is appropriate should be 
used. Young designers have to use 
available tools, old and new, to express 
the qualities of this century My feeling 
is there is room for all kinds of type- 
faces and all kinds of systems Nature 
IS built on systems, we have systems 
wherever we look, so the application 
of systems to communications is sim- 
ply an extension of nature. 

What IS structure'' It is merely a gnd 
system in which things work, in which 
time becomes a pacer, or the grid be- 
comes a pacer for time, where you 
help the reader to go through, let's 
say, a book, or you help a person go 
through an exhibit, and you help, 
through a system, readability Because 
you can let important and difficult 
material be expanded over a longer 
period of time, while simple material 
can be read very quickly, a system is 
a helpful thing 

We face a number of problems that 
are new to this generation All of the 
problems of ecology, the waste of 
paper, uses of natural resources of 
all kinds have to be considered. But, 
as a designer my problem is not 
words. I can t |ust talk My problem is 
deeds I have to act. I have to show that 
I am doing good design. Each con- 
ference like this IS valuable only if, 
after one year when we come togeth- 
er again our work has improved 100 
percent. 

What about the limitations of Federal 
graphics? Every designer works with 
limitations There are no more free- 
doms in the private sector than in 
government. Many |obs have to be 
done within required specifications, 
which IS correct because without 
specifications, what do we do'? Would 
you establish your own system of 
specifications'!' Probably So what is 
the difference Its ]ust as easy to work 
with specifications handed out by 
somebody else Every person with a 



sense of play, a sense of games, iikes 
restrictions You cant play with toys 
or games without having rules You 
can't play hide and seek without hav- 
ing rules. So my feeling is rules are 
important, especially when you are 
starting out with something new when 
you start to establish order in what is 
now in chaos. 

I would like to see people use restric- 
tions to their advantage Typewriter 
type, when it is used beautifully, is 
fantastic. It outdoes anything else one 
might choose. Interest in the gadget 
has to diminish What you do with the 
appropriate tools, within the appro- 
priate specifications is what matters. 

Students want to know where we are 
going? First we have to know where 
we come from But we would like to 
see design at the moment really re- 
flect the last part of this century, the 
last quarter of the century, rather than 
previous times, previous ideas and 
previous philosophies. We would 
also like to see that new philosophies 
can develop so that no structure that 
has been designed right now becomes 
so domineering that another idea can- 
not form and flourish. 

We also would like to see that the 
receiver of the information is not ob- 
scured He IS the person who has to 
use the ideas, the philosophies. The 
government really has the obligation 
to make information available to every- 
body, no matter from what small 
group, what minority, whatever; that 
information comes to him easily so 
that he can understand it We are 
people who have to really do things 
so that the whole process of the link 
between government and citizens 
has to be shortened, has to be eased, 
has to be made more available. 

Design needs constant help and re- 
assurance You can t expect the sys- 
tem to bloom by itself It needs constant 
watering and fertilizing, and the 
systems that are proposed need con- 
stant reiuvenation They are part of 
an organism. Each organism, if it is 
alive, grows and certain things die 
out Certain newthingscome in. There 
must be an allowance for all kinds of 
changes, after the house has been 
cleaned up 



44 



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Interior Design/Industrial Design 46 Participants 

48 Design Awareness 

William L. Puigram 



50 Panel Discussion: Design 
Directions in the Federal 
Government 

Irving D, Schwartz, Moderator, 
Arnold Friedmann, Dennis 
E. Green, Craig Hodgetts, 
Williann L. Puigram, Arthur 
Pulos, Arthur Rubin 



52 Solutions and Services 
through the Design Council 



^. ^^K 52 Solutions and S 

J'^-tr ^^^ through the Des 

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^ V "^^ Sir Paul Reilly 






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>j ^56 New Directions in 

^^■lix'^'^ Interior/Industrial Design in 

"^ the Federal Government 

Larry F. Roush 



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Interior Design/Industrial Design 







i^Vjane Clark is a Research Assistant at the 
National Endowment for the Arts She is 
responsible for the research of the En- 
dowments design newsletter, FEDERAL 
DESIGN MATTERS. and for portionsof 
the Second Federal Design Assembly 




1^ Richard W. Cramer, architect, is Chief. 
Special Projects Section, l\/lilitary Construc- 
tion Directorate, Office of the Chief of 
Engineers, Department of the Army 




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"sV Dennis Green is Director, Interior Archi- 
tecture and Design Programming with 
James Sudler Associates, Denver, 
Colorado 



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■5;!rCralg Hodgetts, architect and designer, is 
Visiting Professor, School of Architecture, 
University of California at Los Angeles, and 
a partner in the design firm, Works, Inc., 
New York and Los Angeles 



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■5^ Arnold Friedmann is Professor and Co- 
ordinator, Design Area. Art Department, 
University of Massachusetts He is also a 
consultant for industry and for several other 
universities in curriculum development 




'"^^^^^ 



■ij William L. Pulgram, President of Asso 
ciated Space Design, Inc , Atlanta, is a 
recipient of a first prize for architectural 
design from L Ecole des Beaux Arts, 
France 



46 



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■si' Arthur J. Pulos, industrial designer, is 
Professor and Chairman of the Depart- 
ment of Design, Syracuse University He is 
also President of Pulos Design Associates, 
Inc , Syracuse 



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■^ Sir Paul Reilly has been Director of the 
Council of Industrial Design since 1960. 
The Council, created and funded by the 
British Government since 1944, imple- 
ments programs and policies to promote 
improved product design within British 
industries 



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'^j^j^ ^ Larry F. Roush is Commissioner of Public 

'^Xj-j^^ Buildings Service and Deputy Administra- 
■^^^jt^j< ^tor for Special Projects, General Services 

^J^ik^ri.^ Administration 



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47 




T^ Arthur I. Rubin is Chief, Sensory En- 
vironment Section, Building Environment 
Division, National Bureau of Standards 
He IS conducting research at the Bureau 
on measurement and evaluation of human 
responses to the man-made environment 




■^ Irving Schwartz is President of IDS, Inc , 
Champaign, Illinois An architect and in- 
terior designer, he has received awards 
from numerous design publications in- 
cluding two 1 974 Progressive Architecture 
awards 




ii C. Kent Slepicka is Director, Special Pro 
grams Division, Public Buildings Service, 
General Services Administration His re- 
sponsibilities include development of the 
Presidential Management by Obiective 
guidelines for design policy m Federal 
agencies 



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Design Awareness 

William L Pulgram 



What are the administrator's con- 
cerns? Usually they have to do with 
people: their relationships to each 
other and to their supervisor; the type 
of work they do; their personal prob- 
lenns, such as anxieties, tensions, per- 
sonal satisfaction, opportunities, 
salaries, and so forth Way down on 
the list of major concerns, the ad- 
ministrator mentions the physical 
characteristics of the work space 

We want to illustrate that there indeed 
is a critical relationship in the interac- 
tion of people and physical space. We 
want to make you, the administrators, 
aware of the benefits derived from a 
concern for improving the physical 
environment; to convince you. if you 
are not yet convinced, that developing 
a responsive environment is not )ust 
one of those unnecessary added ex- 
penses which does not pay off; on 
the contrary, it is an inexpensive way, 
we think, to improve the total effec- 
tiveness of an organization. 

In pointing out the benefits, we hope 
to show that appropriate physical en- 
vironment can indeed contribute to 
the solutions of the most pressing 
problems and concerns of the ad- 
ministrator- which are certainly 
people concerns, people problems 

The agencies of the Federal Govern- 
ment face the complexity of a 
bureaucracy which begs for simplifi- 
cation and standardization, very often 
resulting in a stagnant sameness 
lacking the variety and diversity essen- 
tial to the successful interior space. 
The standanzed impersonal environ- 
ment in which many Federal Govern- 
ment employees work is reinforced by 
the anonymous assignment and allo- 
cation of furniture, equipment and 
work space 

Much of the older standardized equip- 
ment carries with it the neutral 
characteristics of gray sameness. Eye- 
rest green covers the walls, dulling 
the senses by obliterating all stimuli. 
People spend nine to ten hours a day, 
half of their waking hours, in the gray/ 
green office environment. Virtually 
nothing is there that identifies this as 
their own No wonder the individual 
does not look forward to the working 
day They watch the clock, take all the 
sick leave they can get by with, and 
seek out all excuses possible to leave 
the monotonous environment in 
search of stimuli elsewhere 

One of the most difficult and again, 
sometimes arbitrary aspects of office 
planning, is determining how much 



space a person needs to worK effec- 
tively. More often than not, the Civil 
Service rating of personnel, the size 
of a conventional desk and the clear- 
ance one needs to get by it are the 
spatial determinants for a person's 
work area. Standards are rigid, ignor- 
ing the real need of the individual; 
many times not satisfying the physical 
needs of the clerk or the technician, 
his work surface or storage require- 
ments Once again, preconceived no- 
tions as to what people should do and 
how they should do it impede the 
analysis of how a person works indi- 
vidually or with others. 

Are we using space, which is becom- 
ing ever more expensive, to best 
advantage, or are we following criteria 
established long ago that is now ob- 
solete? The technology of doing busi- 
ness has changed immensely during 
the past decade, but in so many cases 
the tool the worker uses is the same 
he or someone in his place used 
twenty years ago If the employee per- 
forms well in spite of antiquated tools, 
how much more effective could he be 
if functional equipment for his present 
task were available'' Not all twenty- 
year-old furniture is obsolete. It 
sometimes functions as well now as it 
did when it was first designed. But 
the vast majority of twenty-year-old 
office or hospital equipment is as ob- 
solete as the twenty-year-old automo- 
bile, and who would think of accepting 
a fleet of old cars in the agencys 
motor pool'?' Not only is the equip- 
ment not functional, but many times 
It IS of poor quality, requiring constant 
maintenance 

Next, we hear of inadequate building 
systems Physical discomfort is a 
major complaint of people working in 
old buildings which were constructed 
based on criteria very different from 
today's needs Hardly anyone spends 
much time in spaces that are not air- 
conditioned, but many people are in 
spaces with very limited cooling ca- 
pacity because the cooling system was 
added long afterthe building was origi- 
nally designed Even the oldest in- 
stallation could remain acceptable 
and respectable if maintained ade- 
quately. Unfortunately, in many 
Federal buildings neglected main- 
tenance leaves space much worse for 
the wear 

Then, we have too much red tape and 
time You know the endless proce- 
dures and forms to be filled out and 
filed often makes what you want out- 
dated before it is ever approved. Yet, 
in many cases, static planning solu- 



48 



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tions are proposed for essentially 
dynamic problems. The static solu- 
tions proposed today, approved six 
months later, may be obsolete in 
another six months or sooner. In 
order to gain an awareness for the 
value of design, a process has to be 
established vjhich vj\\\ articulate the 
problems so that a solution may be 
found. 

The interrelationship of various groups 
requires a great deal of attention. The 
search for functional relationships 
must transcend the conventional atti- 
tude of "the boss in the office and his 
secretary out there with the rest of 
them." Unless a critical examination of 
the organization is made, you may 
end up in your new space with a so- 
lution just as bland and impersonal as 
the one you have left behind. 




What are the benefits of well-planned 
interior space that we are looking for? 
It must be practical: use the available 
space effectively; capitalize on the 
building's potential and compensate 
for its drawbacks; program budgeted 
expenditures to obtain the greatest 
value 

Furthermore, it must be efficient. By 
"efficient," we mean giving people an 
appropriate work environment; a tool 
for productive activity. Number three, 
it must be dynamic: provide for effec- 
tive relationships, communications 
and personal interactions. 

It must be personal, building pride and 
morale: recognize user needs; reflect 
the agency's or department s special 
personality; assist in the recruiting and 
retraining of desirable personnel. 

Five, it must be flexible: planned to 
accommodate foreseeable changes 
for individuals as well as the total 
organization. Number six, among the 
most important, really, to the admin- 
istrator. It must be a sound investment 
for the Federal Government. 

Mr Pulgram's presentation was fol- 
lowed by a slide program entitled "The 
Design Process. " a visual analysis of 
the designer/client relationship 
through program, plan, design, im- 
plementation and evaluation. 





The Office of the Comptroller of the Cur- 
rency, designed by Hunter/fvliller -♦- Asso- 
ciates, IS located in a new office complex 
at L'Enfant Plaza, Washington, DC The 
building was designed by Vlastimil Koubek 
A private office, secretarial pool area and 
conference room are illustrated L Enfant 
Plaza, part of the southwest urban redevel- 
opment area, is named for Pierre L Enfant, 
who conceived the Capital plan in 1 789 



49 



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Panel Discussion: Design Directions 
in the Federal Government 

Irving D Schwartz, Moderator. 
Arnold Friedmann. Dennis E Green. 
Craig Hodgetts William Pulgram. 
Arthur Pulos Arthur Rubin 



This Open discussion session started 
with a question from the audience 

Question: How would the designer 
work towards an improved environ- 
ment, improved obiects improved 
functions in an existing space m an 
old organization'' 

Green: Categories oftentimes cause 
difficulties for designers I am sup- 
posed to talk about implementation, 
and I am supposed to talk about inte- 
rior design Wtien I talk about interior 
design. I am also supposed to talk 
about objects, about physical hard- 
ware, physical things that are going to 
do something to your life when, in 
fact, that may be very low on your pri- 
orities in terms of all of the things that 
you care about in your office and m 
your life in general 

You may not be as concerned about a 
new desk as you are about a new |ob, 
or you may not care about a new chair 
but you would like some administra- 
tive procedures to be changed You 
would like a lot of things done, and 
design is all of those things, not just 
implementing a new space by putting 
new furniture m it 

Pulgram: In the design process, a 
particular organization establishes 
the criteria for a solution by finding 
out your needs, finding out the 
restraints in which the solution must 
be found Every building has restraints, 
whether it is new or old. 

Friedmann: The most important thing 
that design evaluation is concerned 
with or should be concerned with is 
user requirements I think one of the 
things the designer must do is talk to 
a great many people to find out what 
they want 

We have seen a lot today about hard- 
ware and systems, organization and 
administration, I somehow do not feel 
we have talked a great deal about 
people. It might be most important in 
an existing office to create spaces, 
maybe a lounge, where people can 
get away and gripe about the boss, or 
something like that This is all part of 
design 

Question: It appears that we have an 
adversary relationship here, that there 
are designers and managers The 
question is not how we, as managers, 
or how you, as a designer would ac- 
complish a task It should be how we, 
he/she as a manager, and he/she as a 
professional, work as a single team 
to solve a problem 



Hodgetts: I am glad that the com- 
munity aspect of an older organization 
has been raised because I think there 
IS a tremendous difference between, 
let us say, corporate design, where 
there is an imagery to maintain, where 
there is essentially an anonymous 
work force that is simply plugged in 
and out of a situation, and a very long 
term, even crusty kind of an organi- 
zation which, in fact, is a political 
structure The entire Federal work 
force IS, in fact, a political structure 
In fact, most older organizations that 
are not trying to just brush up their 
imagery, like Braniff Airlines, are, in 
fact, political structures 

My response to the question would 
have been to take people around and 
find out what they do not like Let 
them become aware of those things 
in their environment which are, in 
fact, troubling them, which are in- 
adequate, what things need to be sort 
of tuned up. In fact, let them structure 
the situation as much as possible be- 
cause it seems to me it can be over- 
professionalized and you get a certain 
kind of thinness of application, really. 
if you do not admit the full impact of 
the existing organization 

Question: I am amazed how many 
times I walk into a newly-erected 
structure and find inside the same 
thing that we have had inside Federal 
structures for 40 or 50 years, with 
very little change I wonder if it is not 
imperative that you designers make 
yourselves more known to the man- 
ager and suggest to him that he get 
out of his rut and at least listen 

Pulos: I think that is what this assem- 
bly IS all about I think we are begin- 
ning to realize that whatever does not 
happen by design happens by default 
The government has a responsibility 
to the public to lead The environment 
that government agencies create for 
themselves should influence the envi- 
ronment in which the public lives and 
what It expects of its environment 

Rubin: I think in design, and certain- 
ly in the research that we do at the 
National Bureau of Standards, the 
focus IS on the user 

What we are trying to do is better 
understand user needs and how to go 
about measuring what these needs 
are: instead of just talking about them 
in a subjective, non-scientific way, see 
if we can make some objective state- 
ments about them 



50 



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Question: Is it possible to design a 
Federal building that really works for 
its occupants? 

Schwartz: We are trying to convince 
you that you need nnore than an archi- 
tect to do a good building. We have 
talked about a team. We are talking 
about all of the design disciplines. We 
are not just trying to talk about in- 
terior design as the answer to every- 
thing What you have to do is get out 
and see that interior designers and 
psychologists, whoever you think is 
necessary to make your building 
good, are on that team 



Question: I would like to see some- 
thing developed in terms of reference 
material for the layman, for the office 
manager who is going to exist in the 
space after the design people have 
left. 

Green: A team of people should be 
developed within the organization 
who have the ability to do on-going 
research, not just for the physical 
hardware but for the whole organiza- 
tion. This should be an integral part 
of any organization It's called "action 
research " That is something the de- 
signer should know about and help 
you to develop. Good designers do. 




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Solutions and Services through the 
Design Council of Great Britain 

Sir Paul Reilly 




It IS perhaps not surprising that Great 
Britain, the country with the longest 
history of industrial production, should 
also have the longest history of effort 
to connbat the nnore negative results 
of the Industnal Revolution. 

Our Royal Society of Arts-or to give 
It Its full title, our Royal Society for the 
Encouragennent of Arts, Manufactures 
and Commerce- was founded exact- 
ly 220 years ago [By the way, it count- 
ed Benjamin Franklin among its early 
members] It was founded as a pri- 
vate watchdog on the standards of 
design of contemporary artifacts, 
whether made by hand or machine, 
and was thus by a clear margin the 
forerunner of a long line of similar 
bodies in Britain and elsewhere, and 
IS still the one with which my own 
official organization maintains very 
close links. 

The Design Council owes its existence 
directly to the coincidence of two war- 
time reports; one by the then Federa- 
tion of British Industry and, the other 
by the then Board of Trade, both of 
which advocated in almost exactly the 
same words the setting up of some 
government-sponsored agency to 
promote improvements in design, not 
only in industry but also throughout 
the public service 

The original remit given by govern- 
ment to my Council was, and still is. 
To promote by all practicable means 
the improvement of design in the 
products of British industry," a target 
attainable to my mind only by chang- 
ing the climate in British industry, 
commerce and public service so that 
whenever a manufacturer, business- 
man or administrator is faced with a 
design problem, he will not only rec- 
ognize It as such-for that is the first 
hurdle, since Britons who can tell their 
arts from their elbows are still, alas, 
rather rare birds- but will automati- 
cally reach for a qualified designer in 
no matter what context and no matter 
what area of design 

The running of such an organization 
requires a certain degree of oppor- 
tunism and political cunning, but also 
an unfaltering conviction that the 
promotion of design is in the public 
interest To believe anything less 
would mean my staff and myself tak- 
ing money under false pretenses, and, 
worse still, taking public money under 
false pretenses since our Design 
Council IS a state-aided body financed 
to just over 50 percent of its gross 
expenditure by the British taxpayer I 



have always maintained that in a well- 
ordered society therecan be no excuse 
whatsoever to spend public money at 
any but the highest available level of 
design. 

Through a kind of organizational in- 
cest [members of the Council sit on 
industrial boards], the Design Council 
has been able to watch the steps being 
taken by Bntish (v/lails and the Bntish 
Post Office to upgrade all their visible 
manifestations. 

Everything from the Post Office's 
special issues of stamps which are 
winning both popularand professional 
acclaim and are contributing quite 
handsomely to revenue, to the am- 
bitious network of reception areas 
and interiors, all designed by Kenneth 
Grange, one of the partners in the 
office known as Pentagram, is part 
of a broad postal design program. 

The first public service to enter the 
field with a coherent design policy 
was London Transport. It was for the 
old underground railway that the first 
housetype was developed with its bar 
and roundel symbol and its corporate 
alphabet commissioned from the late 
Edward Johnston, both remaining to 
this day the corner stones of London 
Transport's identity. It is largely 
through Misha Black's design office, 
Design Research Unit, that the new 
Victoria Line stations and rolling stock 
and the new buses, whether on 
country or inner-London routes, are 
as decent as they are. 

The Royal Society of Arts may with- 
draw Its design management award 
as publicly as it was first presented, 
a threat that hangs over any award- 
winning company or institution that 
lets Its standards slip, such as the 
British Airports Authority, which a 
few months ago seemed to be falling 
from grace under commercial pres- 
sures to sell every available flat surface 
to advertisers. 

Important as nationalized industries 
may be as patrons of design, govern- 
ment Itself will always be the most 
powerful influence for good or ill In 
Britain, it would appear that govern- 
ment, through the medium of the 
Property Services Agency, is going 
to exert a relatively beneficial influence 
not only through bulk purchasing of 
better than average designs on the 
open market-the purchasing officers 
themselves often having had some 
architectural or design training - 
but also through its own initiatives, 



52 



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street furniture 
from 
design index 

1974/75 



high mast 

lighting 

lighting columns group A 



children s play equipment 
poster display units 
foad signs 



guardrails parapets fencing and 
paving and planting 
footbridges lor urban roads 









til CrowUnd 
TOKMO 






T^?"" -» 



Droitwich 
(A 38) 

Kidderminster 
(A 449) 



b 



€ 



Peterborough 
A 47 



« Northchurch I 
Wlggtngton 4 



■ Chesham 5 



Gaddesden 3 ' 
Ashrldge 






Among the 1974 Design Council Awards 
IS the Bino-Compass" Ctop, left) This 
lightweight attachment converts 50 mm 
binoculars into an accurate long-range 
bearing compass for use at sea. through 
the application of an infinity system that 
provides a simultaneous view of both 
compass card and magnified object The 
Street Furniture Index described by Sir 
Paul Reilly is shown at top. center 

Designed for the Department of the En- 
vironment, the directional traffic signs (top. 
right] are standardized throughout Great 
Britain 

The rotary air compressor (left) is an 
example of the engineering products seg- 
ment of the Design Council Awards pro- 
gram Frank Throwers kitchen and table 
glass was a 1 972 award-winner produced 
by Dartington Glass. Ltd (t)elow. left) 



53 



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particularly in the field of interior 
furnishiings for use througfiout the 
public service 

The Property Services Agency's nnost 
thoughtful contribution is the still ex- 
penmentalsystenn called Schematics,' 
whereby civil service interiors may at 
reasonable cost be brought some- 
where near the standards found in 
private offices. The system is being 
introduced this fall and should, within 
seven to ten years, cover the entire 
civil service in buildings occupied by 
a staff of half a million. 

The Ministry of Transport, quite early 
in the life of the Council of Industrial 
Design, decided that no central 
government funds would be offered 
to any local authorities towards the 
cost of trunk road lighting unless the 
lighting columns had been approved 
by the Design Council. 

Thus started some very effective col- 
laboration between the Ministry of 
Transport and the Design Council 
which has led to nation-wide applica- 
tion of Jock Kinneir's sans-serif 
alphabets for the new motorway signs 
and for ordinary road signs and also 
to the biennial publication of the 
Design Council's street furniture 
catalogue, which, in its field, is one of 
the most influential tools we could 
have hit upon, for we send it free of 
charge to every local authority in the 
country whose engineers and pur- 
chasing officers use it unfailingly as 
an authoritative buyers' guide to 
everything from lamp posts to litter 
bins — a success which we shall hope 
to repeat when in two years time we 
shall send, also free of charge, to 
every substantial farmer in Britain an 
equally selective catalogue of well- 
designed, prefabricated farm build- 
ings and components, a new venture 
which is quite properly being sub- 
sidized by our Ministry of Agriculture. 

The organization of the Council is 
pretty straightforward -its funds and 
instructions come from government. 
Its unpaid governing body compris- 
ing some 28 individuals appointed by 
ministers pnmarily for their known 
interest in design, but also, of course, 
for the influence they can bring to 
bear in their own fields: its various 
advisory committees, such as those 
forengineering design, for farm build- 
ings, for street furniture, textiles, 
jewelry, hotels, catering and for color, 
add considerable specialist weight to 
the Council's opinions; its many 
panels of electors providing both 
authority and cover; and, of course, 
Its staff of 350 doing most of the work 



The best known and still very effective 
tool of the Council is London's Design 
Centre -our permanent, constantly 
changing, selective exhibition of 
around one thousand British goods at 
a time -together with its associated 
Design Index in which are filed illustra- 
tions of some ten thousand similar 
products, all of which have been ac- 
cepted by one of our twice weekly 
juries and all of which are entitled 
to carry the now quite well known 
Design Centre label, over 150 million 
of which have been sold to our manu- 
facturers I should perhaps emphasize 
here that no manufacturer can buy 
his way into the Design Centre, but 
equally none can exhibit there with- 
out paying 

But I like to think of the Design Centre 
as more than a shop window for 
Bntish industry. Indeed, I like to think 
of It almost as a social, educational 
laboratory in which we can examine 
from time to time serious problems 
of design in a changing, finite, even 
contracting world. We have, for in- 
stance, staged what we call thematic 
displays "onsuch subjects as recycling 
or noise abatement or energy con- 
servation, while from time to time we 
introduce our public to industries and 
subjects and design activities that are 
far removed from ordinary shopping 
and housekeeping 

Apart from continuous programs of 
courses and conferences for all man- 
ner of audiences from shopkeepers 
to schoolteachers and from engineers 
to carpet designers, and apart from 
the obvious but essential activities of 
our press officers and television pub- 
licists, there are two further tools or 
services I would like to mention: the 
first being the very recently established 
field officer service for the engineer- 
ing industries whereby the qualified 
engineers on the Design Council's 
staff seek out companies with un- 
resolved design problems and then 
put them in touch with consultants 
or research associations or other 
centers of expertise, a list of which 
we have compiled, but to which we 
are continually adding I believe about 
25 percent of the contacts so made 
result in requests for help, but it is too 
early to say with what outcomes, 
though, to judge from the requests 
now coming in automatically, this new 
service looks like it is filling a need, just 
as has our much longer established 
Designer Selection Service, through 
which we recommend all manner of 
designers, whether industnal. interior 
or graphic, to all manner of inquirers 
for all manner of problems This serv- 
ice is, of course, based on the most 



54 



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complete record we have been able 
to compile of every practicing in- 
dustrial designer in Britain, to which 
new names are annually added as 
young men and women graduate 
from their colleges 

Someone once likened persuading 
Bntons to appreciate design to blow- 
ing pudding through a blanket. And 
yet through my 25 years with the De- 
sign Council, 25 years of criticizing, 
caioling, exhorting and praising 
British industry and commerce, the 
thing that has stood out for me most 
clearly has been the expansion of the 
designer, not only in his status and 
influence and popular esteem, but 
also in his own ambitions. Though 
today he may be increasingly anon- 
ymous and buried ever more deeply 
in a team of equal specialists, his 
role has clearly expanded to em- 
brace almost everything from pro- 
duction to distribution, and from prod- 
uct design to environmental control. 

In other words, the most encouraging 
sights from my various desks at 
Britain's Design Council have been: 
first, the designers emergence as a 
named, respected figure in industry; 
and, secondly, his honorable sub- 
mergence in the anonymity of the 
modern industrial team, for therein 
lies the future of industrial design, a 
future secure in the fact that industry 
has at last come to accept the designer 
as one of us, not one of them 

But here comes a passing irony, for it 
would appear that just as British in- 
dustry has braced itself to embrace 
the designer, so the British student 
designer, content with and intent on 
doing his own thing, seems for various 
socio-political reasons with which we 
are all familiar to have turned his back 
on industry But only temporarily I 
hope, for however guilty industry and 
technology may have been in de- 
stroying by the very process of attain- 
ing them the qualities that make life 
worth living, so it is only through in- 
dustry and technology that these 
wrongs will be righted. 



r^ mr 














Londons Design Centre (above) has a 
constantly changing exhibition of about 
1000 products which are catalogued in 
the Design Index for future consumer 
information 

A 1972 exhibition of products made with 
steel emphasizes, as do all the Centres 
exhibitions, craftsmanship, material quality 
and design excellence (below) 



55 



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New Directions in Interior/Industrial 
Design in the Federal Government 

Larry F Roush 



I m here to discuss a subject which 
seems to receive more talk than it does 
action-It IS environmental design 
quality- difficult to define, more diffi- 
cult to achieve- but easily missed 
when you don't have it. 

As Commissioner of GSA's Public 
Buildings Service, responsible for 
managing more than 224 million 
square feet of space in about 10,000 
buildings, I am intensely interested in 
the impact the GSA has upon the 
quality of Federal design I do not in- 
tend to take this responsibility lightly 
Theroleofthe Federal Government as 
planner, designer and user of interior 
space demands constant re-evalua- 
tion and consideration It demands the 
developmentand encouragement of a 
strong design effort within the total 
Federal planning, design and con- 
struction program The effectiveness 
of that effort is vitally dependent upon 
its being precise, comprehensive and 
coordinated. It is imperative that de- 
sign quality, like construction eco- 
nomics or project scheduling, be an 
essential part of the complex multi- 
professional process that can be and 
must be effectively managed and 
developed. 

In supporting this commitment to de- 
sign quality and to a comprehensive 
design program, GSA recognizes the 
importance of a multi-professional, 
interdisciplinary design team. A team 
which must include the intenor de- 
signer and the industrial designer. 

GSA IS developing its interior planning 
and design program to pursue Fed- 
eral objectives. Here is what we are 
going to do right now 

1) GSA will incorporate professional 
interior planning and design services 
as an integral component of the total 
design process in major program 
areas new construction; maior reno- 
vation, and leasing space 

Professional services will be acquired 
either by contracting in the private 
sector or by utilizing the expertise of 
GSA s interior planning and design 
staff with Its central office and regional 
office network. 

2] GSA IS expanding its existing re- 
search and development program in 
an effort to more closely reflect both 
the professional and technical issues 
of the interior design and industrial de- 
sign community We are in liaison with 
industry on the development of new 
policies, processes and products We 



want to maximize the impact of Fed- 
eral resources for stimulating industry 
innovation. 

3} GSA IS currently evaluating its tech- 
niques and procedures for identifying 
Its client agencies physical space re- 
quirements and user needs We are 
opening up new channels for inter- 
agency communication -chan- 
nels which will enhance our ability to 
respond to your needs 

4) Because these actions are designed 
for incorporation into the full national 
scope of the President's Federal De- 
sign Improvement Program, the Gen- 
eral Services Administration is extend- 
ing these initiatives to incorporate and 
promote international dialogue as 
well. 

In order to promote the full develop- 
ment of this program, and provide a 
catalyst for improving interior/indus- 
trial design within the Federal Govern- 
ment, I would like to announce the 
establishment of the GSA Interior/ 
Industrial Design Action Center The 
Action Center, located within the 
Public Buildings Service, will operate 
as both a resource and reference 
office for the dissemination of impor- 
tant policy information to all Federal 
agencies. It will also receive and 
answer requests for information from 
agencies — either by answering di- 
rectly, or by putting the requesting 
agency in contact with the appropriate 
organizational resource. 

The Action Centers primary vehicle 
for the distribution of this information 
will be the Federal Interior/Industrial 
Design Workbox designed as a com- 
munications vehicle for Federal 
agencies and the professional com- 
munity The Workbox represents a 
forum for dialogue on a vast array of 
interior/industrial design topics rang- 
ing from news items to policychanges. 
Its format is designed for growth and 
revision: its contents for information 
and stimulation 

In the coming weeks GSA will: 
1 ] expand our fine art in Federal build- 
ings program to include building in- 
teriors: and 2] put historic monuments 
to new public uses, allowing revenue- 
producing activities in the buildings to 
pay for restoration/renovation and 
maintenance costs For example: 
a] the old U S Post Office and Cus- 
toms House, Burlington, Vermont, will 
be conveyed to Chittendon County 
for use as a county courthouse The 
county will pay itself rent to finance 
the conversion and adaptive reuse: 



56 



i!VtVTV-i!irTirT!!rTirT!!rTlrtVtVTlVTirirTl!rTVT!irT!irTirT!tT^ 



and b) The Federal Building and 
Courthouse, Grand Rapids, Michigan, 
will be conveyed to the city tor use as a 
community arts center, housing activi- 
ties dedicated to drama, music, and 
the visual arts. 

These initiatives have been taken to 
ensure that Federal efforts on behalf 
of the "Design Reality" do not stop 
with the closing of the Second Design 
Assembly Following the First Federal 
Design Assembly, the architecture cri- 
tic of The New York Times, Ada Louise 
Huxtable, stated that "... there will be 
good talk in Washington and bad de- 
sign forever " If we choose to ignore 
the professional obligations, responsi- 
bilities, and actions that have been 
presented, discussed, and analyzed, 
these past two days, she will have 
been correct. 

It is imperative that each of us commit 
our continuous energies to making de- 
sign quality a reality in the Federal 
Government- and making it a reality 
now! 

The Interior/Industrial Design 
Workbox 

Among the General Services Admin- 
istration design initiatives announced 
at the assembly is the Workbox, a 
vehicle for disseminating information 
to Federal agency personnel. The 
Workbox will be continually updated 
by the Action Center staff Workbox 
elements will vary from news items to 
policy changes and complex issues 
such as the professional licensing of 
interior designers will be explained 
and analysed. 

In addition, there will be many other 
sections including: a professional re- 
ferral service for designers: interior 
planning services offered by the GSA 
and other Federal agencies: the Fed- 
eral procurement indexing system 
now under development: a listing of a 
national network of showrooms and 
libraries: liaison efforts with industry: 
signage systems: case studies: and. 
an expanding bibliography for admin- 
istrators and designers 




Larry Roush explained the purposes and 
contents of the Interior/Industrial Design 
Workbox, to be distributed by the GSA 
through its new Action Center 



57 



iV-ilVTir-i:i-tVT!i-T:!rT!V5VT:i--il!rTl!rT!!rTlr-iVTirTiri^-i!!rTir^ 




The Arena Stage (above) and Kreeger 
Theater (below) are adjoining performance 
spaces in a connplex designed by Harry 
Weese & Associates, sited near the 
Potonnac River The two theaters provided 
comfortable, acoustically excellent, at- 
tractive environments for the Assembly s 
meetings 




58 









Landscape Architecture/ 
Environmental Planning 



60 Participants 

62 The Design Process 

George Rockrise 



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65 Panel Discussion: 

The Role of the Designer 

Edward D. Stone, Jr., 
Moderator, Raymond L. 
Freennan, William Penn Mott, 
Theodore Osmundson 

67 Design and Land-Use 

Russell Train 

^^xi-y, 69 Case Studies: Forest Service 

^^ Edward H. Stone, II 

72 Case Studies: American 






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■it ^^rt^ Russell Train 

S ^ ^^^vt. ®® ^^*® studies: Forest i 

^ \ ^^ Edward H. Stone, II 

^ ix 72 Case Studies: Americ 

^ \ jv-fei^"^"^^ Society of Landscape 



Architects 1974 Awards 

William G. Swain 



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Landscape Architecture/Environmental Planning 




•ir Raymond L. Freeman, Assistant Director 
for Development. National Park Service, 
has been with the Service since the mid- 
1 940s directing a v^^ide range of programs 





i^t William Penn Mott, Jr., a practicing land- 
scape architect, has been Director of the 
California Department of Parks and 
Recreation since 1967. 



Gerald Patten, landscape architect. 
IS Chief, Environmental Quality Division. 
National Park Service The Division has 
primary responsibility for the application of 
the National Environmental Policy Act to 
Park Service activities. 






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ii George Rockrise is an architect, a mem- 
ber of the American Society of Landscape 
Architects, and a recipient of its Certificate 
of Award 










ix Theodore Osmundson, a practicing land- 
scape architect in California, is a Fellow 
and past President of the American So- 
ciety of Landscape Architects 




'^1^^. 



ir Joan Shantz, Research Assistant at the 
National Endowment for the Arts, is re- 
sponsible for research and coordination of 
projects related to the planning and im- 
plementation of the First and Second 
Federal Design Assemblies 



60 



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'ir Edward D. Stone, Jr. Is a practicing land- 
scape architect in his own firm, Edward 
D Stone, Jr & Associates, with offices in 
Florida, New York, South Carolina and 
California 



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i^ Russell E. Train, Administrator of the En- 
vironmental Protection Agency, served as 
the first Chairman of the Council on En- 
vironmental Quality, responsible directly 
to the President for the development of the 
Administration s extensive environmental, 
legislative and administrative programs 



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it Edward H. Stone II, President-elect of the 
American Society of Landscape Archi- 
tects, IS Chief Landscape Architect, U.S. 
Forest Service, 







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j^jj. -i!^ William G. Swain, a partner in the land- 

'^J^:^-. scape architecture firm of Griswald. 

^y^ Winters, Swam & Mullin, is immediate past 



President of the American Society of Land- 
scape Architects 



61 



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The Design Process 

George Rockrise 



I mean to give a highly personalized 
version of how I think the architectural 
or environmental design process 
might be improved, especially with 
regard to government projects 

Let us begin with the existing conven- 
tional design process. First the de- 
signer IS presented with a standard 
contract. I would only say about the 
standard government contract, it ob- 
viously IS something designed to en- 
cage and to debilitate creativity, I have 
never seen a government contract 
calculated to incite the designer to 
greater heights of creativity or one that 
implies that the client-agency would 
go along with him in any sense if he 
did. Contracts are full of don'ts and 
constraints and performance bonds 
and this sort of thing. I suggest this 
might be looked at. 

Secondly, very often a program is 
given to the designer. When I say 
given, I really mean given. It is specific 
as to space allocations, functions and 
interrelationships, budget limits, of 
course, site location, et cetera. The 
designer may be allowed to verify pro- 
gram information, politely talk to the 
actual users and he can visit the site 
and go through all the genteel girations 
that have occurred since time im- 
memorial, but since programming by 
and large is basically done by the 
client, and who knows the client better 
than the client, this "mirror, mirror on 
the wall" approach is not questioned, 
nor of course will it be questioned by 
the designer-planner, because usually 
there is no fee or no allocation for pro- 
gram research or verification 

So, the designer proceeds to design. 
Inevitably, he has several reactions 
He senses there are program omis- 
sions This upsets him, but more 
importantly it upsets the program 
budget equation, if indeed there was 
an equation in the first place. He ques- 
tions some of the program assump- 
tions intuitively, out of past experience 
or whatever. He wants to talk to the 
real user, but he can't, probably, get 
past the program manager. He may 
be told flatly that his responsibility is 
to design, which sounds a little bit like 
the old story that, . his is not to 

reason why." 

To assuage his wounded genius, he 
grits his teeth and mutters, I'll show 
those so-and-sos ' He proceeds to 
"rev" up an earth shattering monu- 
mentwhich isa real tribute to his talents 
as a sculptor, perhaps, rather than as 
a humanitarian-designer-architect. At 
least he stayed with the visual arts. 



His blinding intuition, having no other 
recourse, thus solves all the problems, 
on and off the site, his way. Of course, 
in the process, he becomes very diffi- 
cult to deal with. 

Then, there is the other designer- 
planner, perhaps less gifted, but cer- 
tainly more realistic. He might take a 
much less creative approach and say 
to his staff, "All right, boys. Let's not 
argue with the program or the con- 
tract. Let's bang it out just like we did 
for the Navy at Winnimaca." 

Now our designers go back to the 
client for design concept approval. 
The Navy Winnimaca scheme will 
probably be approved. It is so dull it is 
difficult to disagree with it, and the 
average client can't tell good design 
from bad design anyhow. 

The brilliant and intuitive sculptural 
scheme probably makes a few bureau- 
crats nervous because it obviously 
costs more, is over the budget. It is a 
tour de force rather than a tower of 
strength, and it probably manipulates 
emphasis on certain program ele- 
ments to fortify the designer's assem- 
blage into a truly artful composition. 
Well, after much hassle, and many 
moons later, it may be built, albeit 
somewhat battered. Or, it may flunk 
cold. 

In any event, in both cases, the lack of 
a searching program and research ef- 
fort and the prevention of real prog ram 
participation by the designer, has 
caused a failure in the design process, 
rather than producing a building, or 
a park, or a place that generations of 
users would cherish and love, what 
Bill Marlin has called, responsive 
design." What I want to emphasize is 
that the design process is not, repeat 
not, at all like the bureaucratic process, 
and that a basic understanding of that 
difference must pervade these 
discussions. 

The excellent report. Federal Archi- 
tecture: A Framework for Debate. 
says in conclusion, "We cannot man- 
date good public design. We can only 
mandate a favorable public policy 
climate." In my view, this is but another 
way of saying the design process is 
absolutely different from the bureau- 
cratic process. 

If I have at all traced the normal, un- 
comfortable meeting of the two 
processes, bear with me while I go 
back over the course and attempt a 
difficult identification of an idealized 



62 



t|iJrTlrTir-i!^TVT!!r-!!!rtIrT!^Tir-i^-i!!r-iirT!!rT!VT!^T!!^ 



design process, hopefully tree, un- 
fettered, tiumanistic, yet surviving in 
what IS a necessarily Pureaucratic 
milieu. 

Research and analysis nnust be done 
by the planning and design team 
which I trust we all understand is a 
multi-disciplinary team today, because 
first, at no time have I ever encoun- 
tered large or small, corporate or gov- 
ernment, an agency which has had 
all of these disciplines on board and 
working together in a team situation. 
Secondly, given a problem in environ- 
mental design, each of these disci- 
plines is turned loose to individuals 
who come up with a different solution. 
We all know that any two architects or 
planners automatically would do that. 
Thirdly, undera well orchestrated work 
plan, the proper team disciplines will 
extract basic data and a preliminary 
analysis, for example, will integrate an 
evaluation far above the client's ability 
to produce The results in this first 
phase should be truly research and 
analysis, a searching, polyfaceted look 
at the planning area, its environment, 
all its surroundings, community pro- 
tectionist attitudes, transportation, 
utilities or whatever. This is important, 
objective information, free of the 
client's prejudgment or other forms 
of tunnel vision. 

The next step is competent program- 
ming for environmental quality and at 
this crucial stage I would like to add 
an ingredient to the mix-citizen, 
public interest, group participation. 
At last we are beginning to understand 
that there are people outside the client- 
planner relationship who indeed have 
an invested interest in any major 
undertaking by a government agency 
But what we don't fully understand, 
and that includes the designers and 
planners, is how to work with public 
interest groups thoroughly and 
honestly; namely, in the programming 
phase 

Historically, the bureaucratic process 
was not open to public participation. 
Bureaucratic reasoning understand- 
ably believed that public participation 
began with the creation and enact- 
ment of enabling legislation itself, and 
that that was adequate participation, 
even though said legislation may have 
been passed a decade or two earlier. 
In the same way, the design process, 
wrapped in an elitist aura since time 
immemorial, could hardly stoop to 
consulting the hoipolloi Consequent- 
ly, designers, eschewing any form of 
public participation and in the ab- 
sence of any contemporary inspira- 
tion or relevant vision, normally worked 



over the Acropolis. My fellow archi- 
tects are still a little transigent. Sculp- 
ture rather than community needs, 
somehow, is their preoccupation. The 
tour de force is still supposed to ele- 
vate man's spirit, even if he is hungry 
or alienated, and the phrase, back- 
ground architecture, " is an absolute 
anathema. 

To raise the quality of the govern- 
mental, environmental planning 
process, the bureaucratic process 
must, where public concern exists, 
bear its pristine chest and submit to 
public participation. Incredibly, it is 
beginning to happen, and it is my firm 
belief that through this process the 
end product will eventually improve 
But why? Because both eclecticism 
and ego-trip will have been replaced 
by a people-responsive architecture; 
environment that offers dignity and 
sensible participation to Mr. Every- 
man. Tired design cliches, we believe, 
will be replaced by tireless responses 
to human need. 

With the completion of the program- 
ming phase, and its review and ac- 
ceptance by client agencies, all juris- 
dictions and tionaf/c/e interest groups, 
we come to that phase which is 
known as the Alternate Concepts 
Phase. Architects never heard of this. 
All planners do it. The big point here, 
of course, and it's often overlooked, 
IS that without alternatives there can 
be no citizen participation. 

In summary, what I am saying is this; 
the governmental process is often 
rigid, unyielding, manualized to a fare- 
thee-well. The design process is often 
egocentric, arrogant, unheeding and 
overbearing What strange bedfellows 
they make! Ironically, in reality, both 
sides are struggling over what each 
thinks is best for the user, overlooking 
the obvious: the user himself is dying 
to be asked his opinions. 

So why not ask the user? It seems to 
me that user input is logically the 
ameliorating force in the whole con- 
frontation, so that, in the most simple 
terms, the Federal design process 
should be structured as a true trium- 
virate; designer. Federal agency, and 
the affected and concerned public. 



63 



TlWir-sIrT^Tii^tiirTiirTiirtirTir-A-'A^TVTiirTiririir-ilirirT^ 






A presentation by Jerry Campbell of 
Sasaki, Walker Associates, San Francisco- 
based landscape architects and planners, 
"Idaho" explored the impact of man on the 
natural environment Idaho demonstrates 
the beauty of the wild, untouched western 
landscape, and though it has a relatively 
small population, it also has all aspects 
of 20th century industrial encroachment, 
including the urban smog belt. 

Photos Jerry Campbell Presentation made 
possible bygrants from Johns Manvllle Corpora- 
tion, Sun Valley Corporation and the National 
Endowment for the Arts 



64 



j^sViii-iIrTilrVirTiirTVTViVTir-A'-A-TJi-Tii'-ArT^ 



Panel Discussion: 

The Role of the Designer 

Edward D Stone, Jr , Moderator, 
Raymond L Freeman, William Penn Mott, 
Theodore Osmundson 



Mr. Stone opened the discussion by 
suggesting that the panel address itself 
to two problems: 1) the self -per- 
petuating mystique of designer solely 
as form-giver; and 2J the client-de- 
signer problems that arise from 
misunderstandings with regard to 
budgets and program goals. 

Freeman: In order that managennent 
and designer together achieve design 
excellence, two things must be done 
at the very outset. One, the administra- 
tor must prepare a complete and de- 
tailed statement that sets out the 
purpose of the project, management 
needs and objectives, regional in- 
fluences, and any statutory constraints. 
Second, he must provide a work pro- 
gram—a contract between the ad- 
ministrator/manager and the planner/ 
designer. 

After a joint evaluation of the prob- 
lems, a determined course of action 
is established to clearly outline the 
scope, magnitude and duration of the 
work to be done. This design direc- 
tive also spells out how reviews of the 
work will be handled. The summary is 
threefold: it defines the work of the 
planning team; it informs manage- 
ment or administration of how the 
team will function; and it serves as a 
basis for review and acceptance of 
the plan. 

Now, this may sound great on paper, 
but what about the little, nasty ques- 
tions such as who gets the final ap- 
proval? And how to keep personal 
taste from becoming an overriding 
factor? 

An agreed upon review process will 
certainly help this. The review com- 
mittee must be made up of the top 
management people from whom the 
project has come, the head of the pro- 
ject design office, and the planning and 
design people who are actually doing 
the work. 

Another item worth considering is an 
office of quality control to be respon- 
sible for the quality of excellence of 
designs produced, whether they are 
done in-house or by outside con- 
sultants. All the professions are repre- 
sented in this office of quality control, 
and one of their primary functions is 
to insure that designs meet the high 
quality standards which have been set 
up for the agency that is involved. 

Mott: National, state, regional and 
municipal parks should be planned 
by multi-disciplinary planning teams 
Increased population and a more 



complex social structure, together with 
a recognition that our resources are 
finite, requires that planning for even 
the tiniest mini-park be a team effort 
in order to creatively solve our social, 
economic and resource problems. 

Add to this the many review processes 
a plan must go through and it should 
be evident to everyone that planning 
is a highly professional, complex busi- 
ness that takes time and the expertise 
not only of the planning disciplines of 
architecture, landscape architecture, 
engineering and planning, but also 
the knowledge and expertise of the 
natural science disciplines such as 
geology, ecology, forestry, wild- 
life management, botany and other 
related disciplines, and the knowledge 
and expertise of the social sciences 
such as psychology, sociology, anthro- 
pology, archeology and economics. 

Planning also must secure the input 
of those concerned with the opera- 
tions and safety of whatever the de- 
velopment may be, as they frequently 
know better than the planning dis- 
ciplines what is wrong insofar as the 
day to day operations are concerned. 

It is absolutely essential that the pub- 
lics' ideas, facts and recommenda- 
tions, be secured at the very earliest 
stages of planning in order that the 
plan will meet the needs of the public 
today. 

Osmundson: The land and landscape 
held by an agency is held in trust. This 
trust allows no license to an agency to 
despoil it in any way for that agency's 
single purpose, no matter how special 
that agency may view its public 
mandate. 

We are focusing on federally owned 
landscape One third of the nation's 
land may be in Federal ownership, but 
that amount becomes even larger 
when those areas affected by grant 
programs, housing, education, medi- 
cine, flood control, agriculture, open 
space, recreation, and many others 
are added. 

Landscape design is a profession that 
stands between practicality and 
aesthetics, the use of adaptation with 
nature. It requires a knowledge of en- 
gineering, architecture, land- 
scape, construction, natural be- 
havioral sciences, public relations, and 
above all, health And, understanding 
the design process as it relates to the 
land Protecting and healing the land 
from man's intrusion is the prime con- 
cern in every land-use problem 



65 



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i 



I would like to recommend the follow- 
ing: 1) Ail government land-use 
problems should be dealt with by 
qualified agency [or consulting] 
design teams; 2) The architect on 
the program should be considered 
a staff extension for the particular 
task, not an ivory tower profes- 
sional; 3) A consultant should be 
given the opportunity to restore 
options which may not have been 
considered by the agency and which 
may not be accomplished by the 
agency without some help or leverage 
from the private sector; 4) A generally 
strong record of problem solving in 
the landscape field is more important 
in selecting a landscape architect from 
the private sector than is precisely the 
same experience on a previous job; 5) 
If rules and regulations are found to 
prohibit a reasonable solution, a re- 
striction should be considered part of 
the problem, and studies reviewed for 
positivechange; 6) Sound, reasonable 
innovation in design solutions should 
be encouraged 



After the initial presentations by the 
panel niembers. Mr Stone took ques- 
tions from the audience 

Question: What are the design proc- 
esses and controls when elements of 
public lands, specifically parks, are 
developed by groups in the private 
sector^ 

Freeman: We do permit private con- 
cessionaires in public parks, but we 
control what is done Maintaining 
standards is difficult, but one method 
that usually works is to develop within 
a master plan, using it to define and 
direct change 

Question: To the question of public 
involvement- who is the public? Is it 
only the Sierra Club? 

Mott: In the old days, the only citizens 
groups working with the government 
were the organized clubs, e.g. Audu- 
bon, Sierra. In California, we set up 
75 citizen participation committees 
that include people from all walks of 
life, to advise on State Parks. In addi- 
tion, we have technical committees 



of professionals who are very effective 
as advisors. 

Question: What are the methods for 
long term evaluation on projects in- 
volving public funds? 

Freeman: That is an agency respons- 
ibility-and should be long term. 
Agency members should go into the 
field and evaluate work with the public 
and with operations personnel. Care- 
ful records of evaluations build a his- 
tory of success and failure that should 
be a strong influence on future proj- 
ects. 



II 



Fort Pulaski 



General Development 



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11 



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LAND 


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1 SURVEY 

2 CORRECT SHORE EROSION 

3 FUTURE LOCATION COAST GUARD STATION 

4 ELIMINATE BOAT RAMP 

5 CONSTRUCT RESIDENCES 

6 WHARF TO BE REBUILT 

7 PILOTS OUARTERS TO BE REPLACED 

8 POSSIBLE PICNIC AREA EXPANSION 

9 CONSTRUCT ENTRANCE FACILITIES 

10 LAND ACQUISITION 

11 POST BOUNDARY 




JUNt 73 I DSC 



66 



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Design and Land-Use 

Russell Tram 



Fort Pulaski National Monument's five 
thousand acres m Georgia are a part of the 
great salt marsh estuanne environment a- 
long the southern Atlantic Coast The mas- 
sive fort, builtafter the Warof 1812, is in an 
excellent state of preservation In 1924 it 
was designated a national monument and 
transferred to the National Park Service 
New plans for its continuing preservation 
are underway (opposite^ 



While our responsibilities at the En- 
vironmental Protection Agency are 
statutory and tend to focus on air and 
water quality, science, radiation and 
so forth, we can only deal with these 
issues in the much broader context of 
the total environment of which design, 
of course, is a very important aspect. 
The dedicated designer, whatever his 
discipline, is determined to use the 
resources of his site to its ultimate 
advantage I'm convinced the same 
diligence must be applied in formulat- 
ing policies for shaping our larger 
environment 

It goes without saying that these pol- 
icies should call for prudent use of our 
dwindling supply of land What may 
be less clearly recognized, however, is 
the fact that our decisions about the 
use of land have profound effects on 
every system in our society. As I have 
suggested before, there is hardly a 
social, economic, or environmental 
issue before this country that is not 
somehow deeply and directly bound 
up with questions of land-use — with 
questions of how and where we or- 
ganize our activities in space We must 
devise effective and democratic ways 
of channeling growth. Unless we do, 
we will not find adequate solutions to 
such issues as housing, transporta- 
tion, air and water pollution, equality 
of opportunity, or quality of life. 

Many states and communities have 
taken great strides in shaping growth. 
Their efforts could have been stimu- 
lated by the land-use planning bill 
which Congress again failed to pass 
earlier this session. Misconceptions in 
Congress and elsewhere contributed 
to its defeat. It is important even now 
to dispel some of these. 

The legislation would not have given 
Federal and state governments power 
to confiscate property or put the Fed- 
eral Government into the business of 
zoning the country, as some have 
suggested Nor would it have enabled 
ecologists" to stop all growth, nor 
taken away local zoning and other 
land-use powers. It would have of- 
fered states assistance in development 
of comprehensive land-use plans on 
which to base clear guidelines for 
future growth 

With or without legislation, however, 
development will continue. Estimates 
of the amount of land converted each 
year to residential, commercial or in- 
dustrial uses range up to one and one- 
half million acres When we delay deci- 
sions to chart the course of that 
growth, we are, of course, making a 



choice. That choice is more sprawl, 
and we have already had too many 
decades of it 

Sprawl has become so pervasive that 
few of us have been aware of the kind 
of mid-century spread our metropol- 
itan areas have undergone Frequently 
cited statistics, such as the finding that 
75 percent of the population lives on 
two percent of the land, evoke images 
of unbearable crowding. Actually, 
metropolitan areas are expanding fast- 
er than their populations 

Around the turn of the century, a city s 
size expanded by about ten acres of 
land for every 1 ,000 people who were 
added to its population By 1930, 
cities were expanding by 30 acres for 
each additional 1 ,000 people Accord- 
ing to the Population Reference Bu- 
reau, which assembled these figures, 
cities today consume more than 200 
acres of land per 1 ,000 new residents 
If the present rate of decline in popula- 
tion density in urban areas continues, 
the 6,580 persons per square mile in 
cities in 1920 is expected to be cut to 
3,732 persons per square mile by the 
year 2000 

But the days of sprawl are numbered; 
there are strong forces at work coun- 
teracting It. The Council on Environ- 
mental Quality will soon release a 
detailed study which confirms what 
we have known intuitively- that sprawl 
IS costly when analyzed in terms of its 
impact on the environment, energy, 
and public expenditures I want to list 
some of the findings of this study and 
discuss some of the factors that will, 
over time, reverse patterns of sprawl. 
But first I want to mention some al- 
ternatives to sprawl that are being 
tested in communities all across the 
country. 

The first one is a step taken by environ- 
mentally conscious Palo Alto, Cali- 
fornia This seat of land-rich Stanford 
University escaped most of the de- 
spoliation suffered by its sister com- 
munities when the lush Santa Clara 
Valley was ravaged by almost totally 
unrestrained development Yet when 
Palo Alto officials started computing 
the cost of extending muncipal serv- 
ices to choice residential areas m the 
foothills to the west they made a sig- 
nificant discovery They found that it 
would cost the city less to buy the land 
in the path of development than to 
extend services to it The city is now m 
the process of acquiring much of this 
land for recreation purposes 



67 



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Another city that sets a high value on 
its bordehng foothills is Boulder, Col- 
orado. Boulder's officials watched 
with increasing concern the haphaz- 
ard intrusions into the surrounding 
approaches to the Rocky Mountains 
while the city's population tripled in 20 
years. Then Boulder citizens decided 
to tax thennselves to provide a "green 
belt " that would help contain develop- 
ment. With revenues from a one-cent 
sales tax, the city has purchased 4,000 
acres of open space on its fringes. 

Unless other communities develop in- 
digenous alternatives to sprawl they 
will have to live with the consequences 
or pay for costly remedial treatment. 
Some national trends that should re- 
sult in far more compact and concen- 
trated patterns of urban growth and 
settlement are beginning to take 
shape. 

Already, the seemingly endless up- 
ward spiral of land prices has led to 
the construction of more townhouses 
and apartments Today, multi-family 
residences account for about half the 
units built in the United States (exclud- 
ing mobile homes): in the late 1950s 
multi-family units comprised onlv one- 
fifth of the units built. Furthermore, 
there is a sharp shift away from large, 
child-oriented households toward 
smaller, adult-oriented households. 
This burgeoning number of young 
households with fewer children and 
with less interest in the suburban life 
style, the growth in the number of 
working wives, the increasing empha- 
sis on leisure— these and other related 
demographic and cultural changes 
are going to create an increasing de- 
mand for closer-in, more compact 
kinds of development 

This, of course, points to higher dens- 
ities and higher densities have, unfor- 
tunately, become associated with 
crowding and other evils' of the 
urban environment and with high-rise 
residential patterns Opponents of 
new subdivisions often feel that their 
efforts have been partially successful 
if they manage to reduce the density 
of the development There is an as- 
sumption that lower densities reflect 
a preference for natural over man- 
made environments It is an assump- 
tion that I believe to be highly ques- 
tionable Actually, there are substan- 
tial arguments to indicate that it is low 
rather than high densities that are 
destructive to both urban life and the 
environment 

We are trapped in a dilemma in our 
residential preferences We have tried 



for the past three decades to have the 
best of both worlds in "Spread City " 
We want the economic advantages of 
the city as well as the pastoral beauty 
and quiet of the country. Our under- 
standable preference for nature has 
thus led to its loss. 

Surveyed about their preference in 
cities, Americans almost always name 
San Francisco as their first choice. Yet 
San Francisco's most popular neigh- 
borhoods, such as North Beach and 
Telegraph Hill, have densities of 
around 100 dwellings per acre- with- 
out high-rise structures. Los Angeles, 
most frequently cited as the city with 
the greatest collection of poor exam- 
ples of land-use, has residential areas 
with four to ten dwellings per acre. 
Unfortunately, it is the Los Angeles 
pattern that has been so widely repro- 
duced in our suburbs. 

It is not high-density perse that causes 
congestion A family in a spacious 
Park Avenue apartment does not ex- 
perience congestion though it may 
live in an area with hundreds of dwell- 
ing units per acre. Yet a one-room 
rural shack occupied by a family of 
six is severely congested though it 
may be the only structure on 40 acres. 
The only purpose of juxtaposing these 
two extremes in residential patterns is 
to emphasize a fact of urban life so 
basic we may have overlooked it! Well- 
designed cities provide the maximum 
in collective consumption and are 
thus valuable conservation devices. 
Sprawling, low-density suburbs en- 
courage consumption. 

High-density does not necessarily 
mean high-rise Pans has two and 
one-half times the density of New 
York, but until recent years the hordes 
of American tourists drawn to the 
charms of Parisian street scenes saw 
nothing remotely resembling the tow- 
ers of mid-town Manhattan For that 
matter, outside of mid-town and lower 
Manhattan, New York's predominant 
residential structure is the five- and 
six-story walkup Soon the New York 
State Urban Development Corpora- 
tion will be renting what it calls low-rise, 
high-density developments in Brook- 
lyn and Staten Island. The aim of the 
designers of these units is to provide 
the occupants with a sense of com- 
munity that has been difficult to sus- 
tain, especially for families with chil- 
dren, in high-rise buildings. 

I want to emphasize that we must 
channel new growth and redirect past 
developments through democratic 
processes The planning proc- 
ess must be accountable at every 



decision-making level. A broad range 
of mechanisms has been devised to 
permit neighborhood participation. 
New York City, which spent years pre- 
paring a six-volume master plan, is 
now supplementing it with a series of 
mini-plans " tailored to the needs of 
individual communities in the city's 
boroughs. 

We have an unlimited opportunity to 
reshape and restructure the urban 
environment. We should not let our- 
selves be forced into making a choice 
between Los Angeles and New York, 
or between the Santa Clara Valley and 
Westchester County, for that matter. 
Rene Dubos argues that there is a 
genius of place " or spiht of place" 
that will be found in every part of the 
world if we look for it. "The great cities 
of the world, " he insists, "contribute to 
the richness of the earth by giving it 
the wonderful diversity that man adds 
to the diversity of nature." 



I 



68 



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Case Studies: Forest Service 

Edward H Stone, II 



Our national forests were established 
by law for thie purpose of production 
of water. That original legislation has 
been modified to include the produc- 
tion of wood, and further modified to 
include recreational and other uses. 

Public forests create a lasting land- 
scape character as a result of the many 
uses being made of these lands. Most 
of the patterns of the past achieved 
visual characteristics by default. They 
were not designed as we think of de- 
sign but were laid out in the most effi- 
cient, economical, or scientific way 
known of managing a resource. As a 
consequence, many acres of forest 
land have not been coherently planned 
or designed. Timber harvesting, in 
those areas where clear-cutting was 
a scientific way of doing the job, was 
often done in easily accomplished 
geometric patterns. Ski areas were 
constructed primarily for the conven- 
ience of the skier and builder with little 
thought to visual impact. Power trans- 
mission lines, constructed across na- 
tional forests under permit are 
normally carefully engineered, but 
their designers rarely consider the 
appearance of these monstrous ten- 
tacles. Revegetation projects through^ 
out the Southwest create geometric 
patterns incompatible with otherwise 
irregular landscapes. 

These are some of the problems What 
is the solution? How do we accommo- 
date to visual perception and bring 
design to bear? How do we best utilize 
192 landscape architects who are 
rather evenly distributed throughout 
the National Forest Service which is 
otherwise primarily populated by 
members of scientifically based dis- 
ciplines?Even though this large group 
of designers has grown significantly 
from a total of seven in 1958, it was 
and IS impossible to assign a designer 
to each project 

A training program was initiated to 
enlisttheaid of allot our land manage- 
ment people so as to have at least 
minimum concern for the visual im- 
pact of all proiects This training was 
structured on a need to know basis, 
varying from an awareness presenta- 
tion to the majority of employees to 
in-depth seminars for those who were 
to become instructors A series of 
training handbooks followed and 
others are in the pipeline. All will be 
available through the Superintendent 
of Documents 

The first book presents the basics of 
design as they are encountered in 
landscaping The elements of form, 



line, color, and texture are illustrated 
as they occur in nature. The second 
handbook presents a visual manage- 
ment system which analyzes the char- 
acteristics of the landscape, producing 
a map of its visual vahety. This map is 
compared with overlays which attempt 
to measure the level of public sensitiv- 
ity to visual change These are then 
combined in a map that recommends 
visual quality objectives The objec- 
tives are explained with pages of color 
photos illustrating various practices 
which meet the different levels of visual 
quality, ranging from preservation and 
retention to extreme modification 

What are some of the initial benefits 
from this Landscape Management 
Program? We are beginning to save 
timber harvests that were originally 
designed to be visually complimen- 
tary as well as productive and hos- 
pitable to the growth of young trees. 
New technologies, such as the logging 
helicopter, can be tremendous assets 
to the designer because they give the 
land manager a number of new alter- 
natives. When the manager has 
choices he can often utilize the one 
that is visually in keeping with the sur- 
rounding environment resulting in 
functional, productive forest land- 
scapes that require an expert to 
discern natural from man-made 
openings 

Forest roads and roadsides can be 
attractive, and by careful location and 
selection of materials, even roads on 
steep, sparsely vegetated slopes can 
be unobtrusive. Manipulation of the 
forms of vegetation, changes in the 
color and texture of apparatus, allow 
the landscape architect, when sup- 
ported by his agency and the corpora- 
tion involved, to favorably impact the 
visual effect of utilities Only the reflec- 
tion of the sun betrays the location of 
carefully planned power lines Heli- 
copters permit construction of lines 
without unsightly soil disturbance 
Range revegetation proiects can re- 
establish native grasses in a designed 
pattern, following, for the most part, 
natural soil types Natural gas pipe- 
lines can be installed on sensitive al- 
pine tundra with special equipment so 
that within three years it is very difficult 
to see any after effects 

There are some designers loose in the 
forest Their work is appreciated, and 
their disease is catching More and 
more members of the so-called non- 
design professions are loming us in 
the cause of actively managing our 
landscape 



69 



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An example of how not to locate power 
lines IS stiown in ttiis photograph of pn- 
vate land in the Colorado mountains (top]. 
At right is a superior installation on National 
forest land, with minimal clearing for lines. 
Horses are used for land clearance (above] 
to avoid unnecessary damage to trees 




70 



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Fairlawn -South v. .., 

MASTER PLAN 

Anacostia Park East Bani' 



ACTIVE RECREATION 

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Anacostia Community Parks, by Keyes, 
Lettibndge & Condon, is a project of the 
National Park Service, now underway In 
1970, a master plan was conceived for 
both banks of the Anacostia River in 
Washington, D C Strong community em- 
phasis has been important to the plan 



since Its inception and citizens groups 
meet with the planners on a continuing 
basis 

The Master Plan for the east bank is shown 
at top The Fairlawn/Twining Sub-Area 
Plan (center) indicates locations of park 



nodes and the multi-purpose outdoor 
recreation pavilion (below) 



71 



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Case Studies: American Society of 
Landscape Architects 1 974 Awards 

William G Swam 



Environmental design embraces 
much more than those limited con- 
cerns that we tend to lump together 
under the term "nature." Environ- 
mental design is the application of the 
techniques and talents that have be- 
come associated v\/ith the environ- 
mental architect The projects I w\\ 
discuss are selected from the 1 974 De- 
sign Awards Program of the American 
Society of Landscape Architects. 

The first of these case studies is one 
representing a rather traditional de- 
sign problem proceeding in a rather 
traditional way. It is distinguished, I 
think, because of its thoroughness on 
a project of very small scale. 

In planning for the expansion of Mary 
Holmes College in West Point, 
Mississippi an initial analysis was 
made in terms of environmental and 
ecological factors. The very first study 
undertaken by Jim Bassett, the land- 
scape architect, had to do with the 
nature of the soils underlying the 
campus, Basic evaluations were made 
and conclusions drawn as to capac- 
ities for development of various parts 
of the site, not only on the merits of the 
sites themselves but also in relation to 
adjoining areas Next, topography was 
considered in relationship to the soil 
and terrain. 

An evaluation was made of the 
campus's existing vegetation These 
independentanalyses were then joined 
together with other factors, including 
an historical perspective of the pro- 
gram for growth of this institution. 
Resulting comprehensive examina- 
tion of the site in the eyes of one trained 
to be concerned with visual impact 
made possible a consistent develop- 
ment plan 

Maybe the very best argument for 
environmental design at this scale is 
that conservation of funds might be 
the most meaningful sort of conser- 
vation for a small college in M ississippi 
As a general rule, design that respects 
environmental capacities is most likely 
to demand the least financial outlay 
initially and in the long run. Moreover, 
the achievement of these benefits can 
be reached within the context and 
meaning of good design. There is no 
dictum that we must cheat when we 
hold the cost to a minimum or avoid 
good design because of the suspicion 
that It will invariably cost more than 
poor design. 

Lets examine the architectural view- 
point on the location of electric power 



transmission lines in Sausalito, Cali- 
fornia, It is of more than passing 
interest to note that there are thou- 
sands of such lines crossing the 
country. This fact should point to the 
need for more attention to where future 
lines are located and how existing 
easements and rights of way might be 
enhanced if powerlines are removed 
or moved. 

In Sausalito, detailed and precise 
studies were made of the selected 
routes. Alternative routes were chosen 
by landscape architects. Careful 
analysis and extension of other plan- 
ning needs revealed ways of combin- 
ing power lines. We are touching at 
what almost becomes an ethical mat- 
ter more than a practical one. Yet, I 
submit that when environmental de- 
sign takes on that high purpose it 
reaches a superior sort of practicality. 

Mr. Swain then described the Nook- 
sacl< River Project in Washington - 
preservation of a river's landscape 
and development of a recreation area, 
a transportation system study for 
Colorado by Wallace, l\/lcHarg, Rob- 
erts and Todd and Development Re- 
search Associates, and finally, an 
analysis of current environmental 
concerns. 

The work of landscape architects has 
the capacity to enrich human rela- 
tionships with commonplace things 
in our daily world. This occurs on all 
scales from the region which we live 
in down to the bench upon which we 
sit Our cities, old and new, are being 
thought of again as places to live in 
not merely places in which to exist. 
Contrary to H L, Mencken, who is 
often quoted as having said, "Ameri- 
cans have a positive lust for the hid- 
eous," I think people have a positive 
need for the beautiful. It is growing 
easier to convince administrators that 
schools be places conducive to learn- 
ing, that we need not any longer turn 
our backs on the center city, and that 
the town square might not have been 
so square after all. While environ- 
mental planning is a relatively new 
term among our everyday expres- 
sions, the basic principles of design 
it follows are as old as the hills. Yet 
it seems we're gaining an awareness 
that IS bringing these principles, again, 
to the forefront. 

This new height of concern, although 
still a long way from being anywhere 
near universal, ' matured out of a 
surprisingly slow realization that land 
IS our most precious natural resource. 



72 



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Environmental planning is directly re- 
sponsive to the need for conserva- 
tion of the land. This is true at all scales 
of development from the region to the 
rear-yard. It begins to be clear that, in 
planning for conservation and en- 
vironmental quality, we are coming 
through the back door and finding 
solutions to the creeping degradation 
of quality of life which surrounds us. 
It's almost as though we've been given 
X-ray vision to see through the smog 
and the turgid water ... to see our 
creations. It's almost as though we 
didn't see the land until it began to 
wash away. And it dawns on us with 
sudden brilliance that as we solve this 
new set of problems related to essen- 
tial conservation and wise use of land 
what we're doing is practicing 
environmental design. 

When we began to understand that 
the heretofore abundant supplies of 
topsoil and of water were not infinite, 
we learned a lot. We'll soon, I'm sure, 
begin to regard them as more pre- 
cious than all other wealth-producing 
commodities. We might even become, 
in time, mature enough to re-think the 
commodity status of the land itself. 



The expansion plan for Mary Holmes 
College in Mississippi was one of the 
American Society of Landscape Architects 
1 974 award-winners, selected for its care- 
ful analysis of the problems and its eco- 
nomical, ecologically sound solutions 

The Nooksack River Regional Develop- 
ment Plan was given an Honor Award for 
Its thorough in-depth analysis of all aspects 
of the Rivers natural characteristics 















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Closing Remarks 

Nancy Hanks 



I knew when I arrived here yesterday 
nnorning- that this conference was 
going to be highly successful when I 
saw those yellow potted plants in the 
lobby. It was those same 48 plants 
that saved us last week as we planned 
a reception in celebration of the tenth 
anniversary of the National Council 
on the Arts. We had just moved into 
our new offices at Columbia Plaza, 
and the chrysanthemums did won- 
ders to enliven the unfurnished space 
and camouflage the moving crates 
The next day the same plants warmed 
the austerity of the Senate Caucus 
Room while the Council lunched with 
members of Congress. And that same 
night, when President Ford joined us 
at the Kennedy Center, there were 
those yellow chrysanthemums. 

All those other events went so smooth- 
ly that I knew the Assembly s success 
was ensured when I saw the chry- 
santhemums by the door. Flowers 
aside, I would like to say a word or 
two about this Assembly and about 
where we go from here. In a sense, 
the puppets embodied what the As- 
sembly was all about They took a 
very senous subject and talked about 
It with wit and style and, at the same 
time, a sense of reality It was these 
same qualities in John Richardson 
that made him so effective m his role 
as Assembly Chairman. 

In planning this conference we have 
also benefitted from the considerable 
insight of Frank Stanton who has been 
talking about quality and excellence 
for years My thanks go, too, to the 
Federal Council on the Arts and the 
Humanities, to the members of the 
Design Assembly Program Commit- 
tees, to Lam Lattin and her energetic 
staff, and to each of the speakers who 
devoted time and imagination to the 
Design Reality. And Im sure you all 
share my appreciation for the gener- 
osity of Arena Stage in opening its 
doors to us 

The real reason, of course, that this 
Assembly was so much better than 
the first IS the visible progress by the 
Federal Government in its design 
efforts over that last two years We 
can all be very proud of this progress 
But in order to achieve the goals we 
have set, we are going to have to move 
very fast As Justice Goldberg has 
said, we must proceed not with 
deliberate speed but at such a rate 
as to get results And, as Secretary 
Morton has pointed out. our commit- 
ment will require considerable cour- 
age as well 



In the months ahead, the Endowment 
will continue to work toward design 
excellence in a number of ways: 

• We plan to augment our ability to 
assist agencies in the area of graphics 
improvement. 

• We will continue to cooperate with 
the Civil Service Commission on its 
hiring program, and I am hopeful that 
we will soon have a strong training 
and re-training program as well 

• The National Council on the Arts will 
be taking specific action at its next 
meeting on the subject of Federal 
architecture. In this regard I am con- 
fident that the Council will be pleased 
to learn of the expansion of GSA s 
fine arts and interior design programs. 

• The Endowment will broaden its 
work with the state arts agencies by 
encouraging their sponsorship of 
state design assemblies and the in- 
clusion of architecture and environ- 
mental arts in their programs 

• FEDERAL DESIGN MATTERS, our 
newsletter, will undergo a review of 
content, format, and circulation It has 
had a tremendously favorable re- 
sponse, but we all know it can do even 
better in reporting accurately and fully 
on the activities of all agencies 

• And with the encouragementof GSA 
and the urging of the Federal Council 
and the National Council on the Arts, 
we plan to do everything we can to 
continue working with our colleagues 
throughout government In my own 
mind, that is perhaps our greatest 
accomplishment of the past two years 
-we all seem to understand that we 
can work together to achieve a com- 
mon goal, that today instead of a few 
isolated people, there are ranks of 
administrators who equate good de- 
sign with good government 

During the celebration of the Nation's 
200th year the attention of all Ameri- 
cans will be focused more than ever 
on our origins, our aspirations, and 
on the quality of the life we have 
created 

Through a major exhibition in 1976, 
we hope to highlight outstanding 
Federal agency achievements result- 
ing from our first years of work toward 
design excellence I hope to see all of 
you at that gathering And I will bnng 
the yellow chrysanthemums 



74 



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M 



Second Federal Design Assembly staff, 
left to right, back row: Jane Clark, Lam 
Lattin, Nancy Moore; left to right, front row: 
Mary Williams, Gail Harper. Joan Shantz's 
pnoto appears on p 60 



Second Federal Design 
Assembly Task Force 

John Richardson, Jr., Chairman 
Assistant Secretary 
Educational and Cultural Affairs 
Department of State 

J. Carter Brown 

Chairman, Commission of Fine Arts 
Director. National Gallery of Art 

Nancy Hanks 

Chairman 

National Endowment for the Arts 

Thomas H. McCormick 

Public Printer 
Government Printing Office 

Larry F. Roush 

Commissioner 

Public Buildings Service 

General Services Administration 

Frank Stanton 

Chairman 

The American National Red Cross 

Former President 

The Columbia Broadcasting System 

Ronald H. Walker 

Director 

National Park Service 

Department of the Interior 



Second Federal Design 
Assembly Staff 

LanI Lattin, Coordinator 

Secretary 

Federal Council on the Arts and the 

Humanities 

Jane Clark 

Research Assistant 

National Endowment for the Arts 

Gail Harper 

Staff Assistant 

National Endowment for the Arts 

Nancy Moore 

Secretary 

National Endowment for the Arts 

Joan Shantz 

Research Assistant 

National Endowment lor the Arts 

Mary Williams 

Secretary 

National Endowment for the Arts 



Federal Council on the Arts 
and Humanities 

Nancy Hanks 

Chairman, Federal Council on the Arts 

and the Humanities (1974) 
Chairman, National Endowment for the 

Arts 

S. Dillon Ripley 

Secretary 

The Smithsonian Institution 

Ronald S. Berman 

Chairman 

National Endowment for the Humanities 

Terrel H. Bell 

Commissioner 

United States Office of Education 

H. Guyford Stever 

Director 

National Science Foundation 

L. Quincy Mumford 

Librarian 

Library of Congress 

J. Carter Brown 

Chairman. Commission of Fine Arts 
Director. National Gallery of Art 

James B. Rhoads 

Archivist of the United States 

National Archives and Records Service 

John Richardson, Jr. 

Assistant Secretary 
Educational and Cultural Affairs 
Department of State 

Ronald H. Walker 

Director, National Park Service 
Department of the Interior 

Larry F. Roush 

Commissioner 

Public Buildings Service 

General Services Administration 

Francis R. Valeo 

Secretary of the Senate 
Executive Secretary 
Senate Commission on Arts and 
Antiquities 

Representative Ella T. Grasso 

United States House of Representatives 



75 



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Architecture Program 
Committee 

Bill N. Lacy, AIA, Chairman 

Director 

Architecture + Environmental Arts 

National Endowment for the Arts 

Lois Craig 

Staff Director 

Federal Architecture Study 

Washington. DC 

Robert Isaacs, AIA 

Dalton, Dalton, Little and Newport 
Miami. Florida 

Mortimer Marshall, Jr., AIA 

Staff Architect 

Construction Standards & Design 

Directorate 
Department of Defense 
Washington, D C 

Gerald M. McCue, AIA 

President 

McCue Boone Tomsick 

San Francisco, California 

Walter Meisen, AIA 

Assistant Commissioner 
Construction Management 
General Services Administration 
Washington, DC. 

Charles Redmon, AIA 

Principal 

Cambridge Seven Associates. Inc. 

Cambridge, Massachusetts 

Jacquelin Robertson, AIA 

Vice President 

Arlen Realty & Development Corp 

New York, New York 

Visual Communications Program 
Committee 

Jerome Perlmutter, Chairman 
Federal Graphics Coordinator 
National Endowment for the Arts 

Jacqueline S. Casey 

Assistant Director 
Office of Publications 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology 
Cambridge, Massachusetts 

Catherine F. George 

Associate Editor 
Department of State Newsletter 
Department of State 
Washington, DC, 

Tom Gormley 

Artist. Designer 
New York, New York 

David Hausmann 

Graphic Designer 

National Endowment for the Arts 

Washington. D C 



Don Lynn 

Design Manager 
Internal Revenue Service 
Department of the Treasury 
Washington, DC. 

Dennis H. Reeder 

Chief. Pictorial Division 
Army Audio-Visual Agency 
Department of Defense 
Washington. DC. 

Mack R. Rowe 

Chief 

Graphic Communications 
Federal Reserve System 
Washington. DC. 

Lorna Shanks 

Special Assistant to the Coordinator 
Federal Graphics Program 
National Endowment for the Arts 
Washington, DC. 

Peter Smith 

Communication Manager 

Crowell, Collier & MacMillan Editorial 

Corporation 
Arlington. Virginia 

Dietmar R. Winkler 

Director 

Graduate Program of Visual Design 
Southeastern Massachusetts University 
North Dartmouth, Massachusetts 

Interior Design/Industrial 
Design Program Committee 

C. Kent Slepicka, Chairman 

Director 

Special Programs Division 

General Services Administration 

Richard Cramer, AIA 

Chief, Special Projects Section 
Office, Chief of Engineers 
Department of the Army 
Washington, DC. 

Joan Ehrlich, AID 

Senior Project Manager 
Environmental Planning, Inc. 
New York. New York 

Arnold Friedmann, AID 

Coordinator. Design Area 
University of Massachusetts 
Amherst. Massachusetts 

Dennis E. Green 

Director 

Interior Architecture and Design 

Programming 
James Sudler Associates 
Denver. Colorado 

Craig Hodgetts 

Visiting Professor 
University of California 
Los Angeles, California 

William L. Pulgram, AIA. AID 

President 

Associated Space Design, Inc. 

Atlanta, Georgia 



Arthur Pulos,FIDSA 

President 

Pulos Design Associates, Inc. 

Syracuse. New York 

Arthur Rubin 

Chief 

Sensory Environment Section 
National Bureau of Standards 
Washington, DC. 

Irving D. Schwartz, AIA, AID 
President 
IDS. Inc 
Champaign. Illinois 

Landscape Architecture/ 
Environmental Planning Program 
Committee 

Gerald Patten, AS LA, Chairman 
Chief, Environmental Quality 
National Park Service 
Department of the Interior 

Donald P. Bowman, ASLA 
Community Planner 
Federal Aviation Administration 
Department of Transportation 
Washington, D.C. 

Donald R. Fairman, ASLA 

Landscape Architect 

Department of Housing and Urban 

Development 
Washington. DC. 

Larry Isaacson, ASLA 
Chief Landscape Architect 
Federal Highway Administration 
Department of Transportation 
Washington, DC. 

Duane Lyon, ASLA 
Assistant Chief Landscape Architect 
United States Forest Service 
Department of Agriculture 
Washington, DC. 

John Morris, ASLA 
Landscape Architect 
Army Corps of Engineers 
Washington, DC 

Terry Savage, ASLA 
Landscape Architect 
Sasaki, Walker Associates, Inc. 
Sausalito, California 

Sally Schauman, ASLA 
Landscape Architect 
Soil Conservation Service 
Department of Agriculture 
Washington, DC 

Edward D. Stone, Jr., AIA ASLA 
Landscape Architect 
Edward D. Stone, Jr. and Associates 
Fort Lauderdale, Florida 



76 



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D 86-87 International Design 
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The Invisible City 

n 89 Sottsass'Superstudio: 
Mindscapes 

n 90-91 New Learning Spaces 
& Places 

D 92 Signs 

n 93 Film Spaces 



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Number 

1 Hand-Made and Machine-Made Art 

2 American Ceramics 

3 Moholy Nagy and the Institute of 
Design m Chicago 

4 Sectional Furniture 

5 Idea House 1947 

6 Plastics in the Home 

7 Modern Jewelry 

8 Children s Toys 

9 Outdoor Furniture and Accessories 
10 Product Review 1949 

1 1 Textiles and Designers 

12 Lamps and Lighting 

1 3 Everyday Art Exhibitions 

1 4 Useful Ob|ects/Work of Alvin Lustig 
1 5 Tradition in Good Design 

1 6 Tradition in Good Design 1 940 1 950 

17 Product Review 1951 
21 Product Review 1952 

24 Product Review 1953 

25 Fabric Designers and Their Work 

26 Product Review 20th Century Ballet Design 

28 Furniture Designers and Their Work 

29 American Design 

31 Contemporary Book Design 

32 Tenth Tnennale Product Review 

34 The Story of Qrrefors Glass 

35 Product Review 1956 

36 Eight British Designers and Their Work 

38 Product Review 1957 

39 Eight Designer Craftsmen 

40 Industrial Design in Germany 

41 Product Review 1958 
44 Product Review 1959 
47 Product Review 1960 

54 Pottery of Warren and Ahx MacKen^ie 
Mendota Sculpture Foundry 

55 Japan Book Design 

71 Mass Transit Problem and Promise 

72 Toward the Future 

73 Form Follows Fiction 

74 75 Process and Imagination 

76 Easy Come. Easy Go 

n Proiects for Urban Spaces 
78 79 Conceptual Architecture 
82 83 Advocacy A Community Planning Voice 

85 Urban Renewal 1 9th Century Vision. 
20th Century Version 

86 87 Aspen 12 The Invisible City 

89 Sotlsass/Supersludio Mindscapes 
90 91 New Learning Spaces & Places 

92 Signs .^ ^ 

93 Film Spaces 



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